Our study included nondiabetic subjects who were either insulin sensitive (control subjects, n = 8) or insulin resistant (n = 11) and 10 subjects with type 2 diabetes. Subjects provided written informed consent and were not taking diabetes medications. Fasting subjects were randomly assigned to consume the vinegar (20 g apple cider vinegar, 40 g water, and 1 tsp saccharine) or placebo drink and, after a 2-min delay, the test meal, which was composed of a white bagel, butter, and orange juice (87 g total carbohydrates). The cross-over trial was conducted 1 week later. Blood samples were collected at fasting and 30 and 60 min postmeal for glucose and insulin analyses. Whole-body insulin sensitivity during the 60-min postmeal interval was estimated using a composite score (2).
Fasting glucose concentrations were elevated ∼55% in subjects with diabetes compared with the other subject groups (P < 0.01, Tukey’s post hoc test), and fasting insulin concentrations were elevated 95-115% in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes compared with control subjects (P < 0.01). Compared with placebo, vinegar ingestion raised whole-body insulin sensitivity during the 60-min postmeal interval in insulin-resistant subjects (34%, P = 0.01, paired t test) and slightly improved this parameter in subjects with type 2 diabetes (19%, P = 0.07). Postprandial fluxes in insulin were significantly reduced by vinegar in control subjects, and postprandial fluxes in both glucose and insulin were significantly reduced in insulin-resistant subjects (Fig. 1).
These data indicate that vinegar can significantly improve postprandial insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects. Acetic acid has been shown to suppress disaccharidase activity (3) and to raise glucose-6-phosphate concentrations in skeletal muscle (4); thus, vinegar may possess physiological effects similar to acarbose or metformin. Further investigations to examine the efficacy of vinegar as an antidiabetic therapy are warranted.
badane byly dwie grupy:
1) spozywajaca 20 g octu jablkowego, 40 g wody,1 lyzeczke sacharozy
Po 2 minutach spozywali poislek bogaty w weglowodany (87g)
Spozycie octyu znacznie zwiekszylo wrazliwosc na insuline o 34% (w porownaniu do grupy placebo), u cukrzykow Typu2 poprawilo ten parametr o 19%.
Wykazano ze spozycie octu zwieksza poposilkowa wrazliwosc na insukline u osob majacych ten problem
Effects of vinegar (□) and placebo (⧫) on plasma glucose (A-C) and insulin (D-F) responses after a standard meal in control subjects, insulin-resistant subjects, and subjects with type 2 diabetes. Values are means ± SE. The P values represent a significant effect of treatment (multivariate ANOVA repeated-measures test).
Vinegar Decreases Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes
Ten men with type 1 diabetes (aged 32 ± 3 years, BMI 24 ± 1 kg/m2, diabetes duration 14 ± 3 years, A1C 6.7 ± 0.2%) treated with rapid-acting insulin preprandially and long-acting insulin once daily were studied after an overnight fast.
The study was approved by the Attikon Hospital ethics committee, and subjects gave informed consent.
All subjects were asked not to inject the long-acting insulin for 2 days and the rapid-acting insulin for 8 h and not to consume vinegar for the last 2 weeks.
To study all subjects under similar metabolic conditions, insulin (Actrapid; Novo Nordisk, Copenhagen, Denmark) was infused in a hand vein with a pump. During the last hour prior to the beginning of the experiment, the patients were in a steady state regarding blood glucose (BG) and insulin infusion rate. Then, the infusion of insulin was stopped and the subjects were connected to the artificial pancreas (Glucostator, Lonsee, Germany) for continuous BG monitoring.
The total amount of intravenous insulin was the same in the experiments with vinegar (6.16 ± 1.5 U) and placebo (6.14 ± 1.2 U).
The subjects were randomly assigned to consume vinegar (30 ml vinegar, 20 ml water) or placebo (50 ml water) 5 min before a meal composed of bread, cheese, turkey ham, orange juice, butter, and a cereal bar (566 kcal; 75 g carbohydrates, 26 g protein, 6 g fat).
Before the meal, the subjects received a dose (8.9 ± 1 U) of Actrapid subcutaneously, which was assessed according to each patient's insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio and was the same in the crossover study that was conducted 1 week later.
Blood samples were collected preprandially and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 min postmeal for measurements of insulin (Linco Research, St. Charles, MO).
Results are presented as means ± SEM. Differences within groups were tested with paired Student t test.
Fasting BG was similar in the vinegar (5.5 ± 0.2 mmol/l) and placebo (5.5 ± 0.2 mmol/l) experiments and remained comparable until 30 min postprandially (7.4 ± 0.4 vs. 7.7 ± 0.6 mmol/l, respectively). In the placebo experiments, BG continued to rise thereafter with a peak (11.6 ± 1 mmol/l) at 94 min, whereas after the consumption of vinegar, BG increased to 8.6 ± 0.9 mmol/l (P = 0.005) and remained unaltered without postprandial spikes until the end of the experiment. As a result, vinegar compared to placebo reduced BG (AUC0−240 min 1,884 ± 169 vs. 2,282 ± 195 mmol/l*min, P = 0.01) by almost 20%.
Basal and postprandial (AUC0−240 min) plasma insulin levels were the same in the vinegar (5.2 ± 0.8 μU/ml and 4,152 ± 285 μU/ml*min, respectively) and placebo (5.7 ± 0.5 μU/ml and 4,192 ± 375 μU/ml*min, respectively) experiments.
The mechanisms by which vinegar reduces postprandial BG levels are obscure. Previous studies (3) have shown that vinegar delays gastric emptying. Moreover, acetic acid has been shown to suppress disaccharidase activity (4) and to enhance glycogen repletion in liver and muscle (5).
In conclusion, two tablespoons of vinegar could be easily used as a complementary food (e.g., in a salad dressing) to reduce hyperglycemia.
jak poprzednio - dwie grupy
1) spozywajaca 30ml octu + 20ml wody
2) placebo spozywajaca 50ml wody
po 5 minutach od drinku obie grupy spozyly posilek 566 kcal; 75 g ww, 26 g bialka, 6 g tluszczu
poziom glukozy we krwi w grupie 1) w porownaniu z grupa placebo byl znacznie nizszy (8,6 vs 11,6) - o 20%
poziom insuliny byl porownywalny
Acetic Acid Feeding Enhances Glycogen Repletion in Liver and Skeletal Muscle of Rats1
To investigate the efficacy of the ingestion of vinegar in aiding recovery from fatigue, we examined the effect of dietary acetic acid, the main component of vinegar, on glycogen repletion in rats. Rats were allowed access to a commercial diet twice daily for 6 d. After 15 h of food deprivation, they were either killed immediately or given 2 g of a diet containing 0 (control), 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4 g acetic acid/100 g diet for 2 h. The 0.2 g acetic acid group had significantly greater liver and gastrocnemius muscle glycogen concentration than the control group (P < 0.05). The concentrations of citrate in this group in both the liver and skeletal muscles were >1.3-fold greater than in the control group (P > 0.1). In liver, the concentration of xylulose-5-phosphate in the control group was significantly higher than in the 0.2 and 0.4 g acetic acid groups (P < 0.01). In gastrocnemius muscle, the concentration of glucose-6-phosphate in the control group was significantly lower and the ratio of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate/fructose-6-phosphate was significantly higher than in the 0.2 g acetic acid group (P < 0.05). This ratio in the soleus muscle of the acetic acid fed groups was <0.8-fold that of the control group (P > 0.1). In liver, acetic acid may activate gluconeogenesis and inactivate glycolysis through inactivation of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate synthesis due to suppression of xylulose-5-phosphate accumulation. In skeletal muscle, acetic acid may inhibit glycolysis by suppression of phosphofructokinase-1 activity. We conclude that a diet containing acetic acid may enhance glycogen repletion in liver and skeletal muscle.
ocet nasila glukoneogeneze w watrobie i hamuje glikolize w miesniach
dodatek octu do diety pomaga uzupelniac zapasy glikogenu w watrobie i miesniach
Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential of acetic acid supplementation as a means of lowering the glycaemic index (GI) of a bread meal, and to evaluate the possible dose-response effect on postprandial glycaemia, insulinaemia and satiety.
SUBJECTS AND SETTING: In all, 12 healthy volunteers participated and the tests were performed at Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden.
INTERVENTION: Three levels of vinegar (18, 23 and 28 mmol acetic acid) were served with a portion of white wheat bread containing 50 g available carbohydrates as breakfast in randomized order after an overnight fast. Bread served without vinegar was used as a reference meal. Blood samples were taken during 120 min for analysis of glucose and insulin. Satiety was measured with a subjective rating scale.
RESULTS: A significant dose-response relation was seen at 30 min for blood glucose and serum insulin responses; the higher the acetic acid level, the lower the metabolic responses. Furthermore, the rating of satiety was directly related to the acetic acid level. Compared with the reference meal, the highest level of vinegar significantly lowered the blood glucose response at 30 and 45 min, the insulin response at 15 and 30 min as well as increased the satiety score at 30, 90 and 120 min postprandially. The low and intermediate levels of vinegar also lowered the 30 min glucose and the 15 min insulin responses significantly compared with the reference meal. When GI and II (insulinaemic indices) were calculated using the 90 min incremental area, a significant lowering was found for the highest amount of acetic acid, although the corresponding values calculated at 120 min did not differ from the reference meal.
CONCLUSION: Supplementation of a meal based on white wheat bread with vinegar reduced postprandial responses of blood glucose and insulin, and increased the subjective rating of satiety. There was an inverse dose-response relation between the level of acetic acid and glucose and insulin responses and a linear dose-response relation between acetic acid and satiety rating. The results indicate an interesting potential of fermented and pickled products containing acetic acid.
badany byl wplyw octu na poziom glukozy i insuliny po posilkach
badane byly 4 grupy - kazda spozywala po 50g weglowodanow (bialy chleb) i:
-grupa nie spozywajaca octu
-grupy spozywajca 18,23,28 mmol octu
im wieksze spozycie octu - tym mniejszy poziom glukozy we krwi i tym mnijesza odpowiedz insulinowa
Vinegar Ingestion at Bedtime Moderates Waking Glucose Concentrations in Adults With Well-Controlled Type 2 Diabetes
Four men and seven women (aged 40-72 years) diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (by a physician) who were not taking insulin completed the study. Participants provided a clinically determined A1C reading from a recent (<2 months) blood analysis. All participants gave written informed consent, and the study was approved by the institutional review board at Arizona State University.
Participants maintained 24-h diet records for 3 days and measured fasting glucose at 0700 h for 3 consecutive days with a calibrated glucometer before the start of the study. Participants were instructed to continue usual prescription medication use during the study. Utilizing a randomized crossover design with a 3- to 5-day washout period between treatments, participants followed a standardized meal plan for 2 days, consuming either 2 Tbsp apple cider vinegar or water at bedtime with 1 oz cheese (8 g protein, 1 g carbohydrate, and 1.5 g fat). The standardized meal plan was designed to reflect the individual's typical diet. Participants were instructed to record all foods and beverages ingested during each 2-day treatment period.
Fasting glucose was recorded with a calibrated glucometer by each participant during the trial: at baseline (day 0) and day 2 at 0700 h. These results were downloaded by the research staff from each participant's glucometer memory. A multivariate repeated-measures ANOVA test with body weight as a covariate was used to determine a significant time-by-treatment effect using SPSS (version 14 for Windows; SPSS, Chicago, IL).
The duration of diabetes averaged 4.9 ± 1.0 years for the participants, and 73% of participants (8 of 11) used prescription hypoglycemic agents during the study. Before the initiation of the study, a BMI of 29.1 ± 1.2 kg/m2, a typical fasting glucose of 7.6 ± 0.3 mmol/l, and an A1C of 6.7 ± 0.2% were recorded for the participants. Participants complied with the dietary protocol as indicated by the diet records maintained during the study; hence, food intake for the two treatment periods was identical within subjects. Fasting glucose was reduced 0.15 mmol/l (2%) and 0.26 mmol/l (4%) for the placebo and vinegar treatments, respectively (time-by-treatment effect, P = 0.033) (Fig. 1). Closer examination of the data revealed that the vinegar treatment was particularly effective for the participants with a typical fasting glucose >7.2 mmol/l; in these individuals (n = 6), fasting glucose was reduced 6% compared with a reduction of 0.7% in those participants with a typical fasting glucose <7.2 mmol/l (n = 5).
Fasting glucose concentrations at baseline and on day 2 of placebo or vinegar treatment in type 2 diabetic patients (n = 11). Values are means ± SE. The P value represents the time-by-treatment effect (multivariate repeated-measures ANOVA test).
zanotowna spadek porannego poziomu glukozu o 4-6%
Nie do konca jest znany mechanizm dzialania octu - zmniejszanie poziomu glukozy we krwi po posilkach boatych w weglowodany.
Ale ipoteza zostala wysunieta
-ocet 'spowalnia' dzialanie enzymow - opoznia czas trawienia
Zmieniony przez - solaros w dniu 2011-02-06 16:54:08