-korzystnie wplywa na uklad krazenia
-trening poprawia koordynację nerwowo-mięśniową
zwiększa się harmonijność, precyzja jak i szybkość ruchów
-powoduje wzrost pojemności życiowej płuc
-u osób trenujących wraz ze wzrostem wydolności fizycznej wzrasta objętość krwi
-umiarkowany trening wytrzymałościowy poprawia odporność
-jak rowniez poprawia wrazliwosc insulinową
U osób poddanych treningowi obserwuje się obniżenie wydzielania insuliny przez trzustkę. Natomiast tolerancja glukozy przez organizm - mimo zmniejszonego wydzielania insuliny - poprawia się. Wskazuje to na wzrost wrażliwości tkanek osoby trenującej na działanie insuliny jak również zwiększone wiązanie insuliny przez receptory insulinowe osób wytrenowanych. W piśmiennictwie wykazano, że korzystny potreningowy efekt wzrostu wrażliwości insulinowej obserwowano nie tylko po treningu wytrzymałościowym, ale także siłowym i szybkościowym. Efekt ten jest korzystny nie tylko u osób z cukrzycą, ale również otyłych. U osób z cukrzycą pozwala na obniżenie zapotrzebowania na insulinę dostarczona w iniekcjach lub redukcję ilości przyjmowanych leków poprawiających tolerancję glukozy. U osób otyłych efekt ten łagodzi zaburzenia metaboliczne i zmniejsza prawdopodobieństwo rozwoju cukrzycy i nadciśnienia tętniczego.
Kilka badan potwierdzajacych te tezy:
Aerobic exercise training-induced decrease in plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents.
The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the levels of plasma visfatin among female adolescents and changes in plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents after 12 wk of aerobic exercise training. Twenty normal-weight female students (body-mass index [BMI] < 22.9 kg/m²; and body fat ≤ 29.9) and 18 obese female students (BMI ≥ 25 kg/ m²; and body fat ≥ 30%) participated in this study. Eleven obese students were assigned to an exercise group and completed a 12-wk aerobic exercise-training program that included four 40- to 50-min sessions per wk with an energy expenditure of 300-400 kcal/d. Seven obese students were assigned to a control group that received no exercise sessions or dietary restriction. The plasma visfatin levels of obese female adolescents were significantly higher (p < .05) than those of the normal-weight female adolescents. The plasma visfatin levels (294.00 ± 124.74 ng/ml to 185.55 ± 67.30 ng/ml, p < .01) and insulin resistance (p < .05) were significantly reduced after 12 wk of aerobic exercise. The results suggest that aerobic exercise resulting in an energy expenditure of 1,200-1,600 kcal/wk for 12 wk decreases plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents.
trening aerobowy powoduje zmniejszenie opornosci insulinowej u otylych kobiet
Resistance training in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of resistance training on metabolic clustering in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism.
Over the last decade, investigators have given increased attention to the effects of resistance training (RT) on several metabolic syndrome variables. The metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, as a result of normal aging or decreased physical activity, lead to a high prevalence of metabolic disorders. The purpose of this review is: (i) to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the effect of RT on obesity-related impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus; and (ii) to investigate the existence of a dose-response relationship between intensity, duration and frequency of RT and the metabolic clustering. Thirteen RCTs were identified through a systematic literature search in MEDLINE ranging from January 1990 to September 2007. We included all RCTs comparing RT with a control group in patients with abnormal glucose regulation. For data analysis, we performed random effects meta-analyses to determine weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each endpoint. All data were analysed with the software package Review Manager 4.2.10 of the Cochrane Collaboration. In the 13 RCTs included in our analysis, RT reduced glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) by 0.48% (95% CI -0.76, -0.21; p = 0.0005), fat mass by 2.33 kg (95% CI -4.71, 0.04; p = 0.05) and systolic blood pressure by 6.19 mmHg (95% CI 1.00, 11.38; p = 0.02). There was no statistically significant effect of RT on total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and diastolic blood pressure. Based on our meta-analysis, RT has a clinically and statistically significant effect on metabolic syndrome risk factors such as obesity, HbA(1c) levels and systolic blood pressure, and therefore should be recommended in the management of type 2 diabetes and metabolic disorders.
trening oporowy spowodowal zmniejszenie hemoglobuliny glikowanej o 0.48%
spadek tluszczowej masy ciala o 2,33kg i skurczowe ciśnienie krwi o 6.19 mmHg
Multicomponent, home-based resistance training for obese adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.
PURPOSE: To investigate whether a home-based resistance training (RT) program that supplied high-quality equipment and qualified exercise specialists could provide benefits to obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
METHODS: A total of 48 obese individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to either an RT (n=27) or a control group (n=21). Those in the RT group received a multigym and dumbbells and performed RT 3 days per week for 16 weeks at home. A qualified exercise specialist supervised training, with supervision being gradually decreased throughout the study. Primary outcome measures included strength and hemoglobin-A1C, whereas secondary outcome measures included other cardiovascular risk markers, key social-cognitive constructs and health-related quality of life.
RESULTS: Intention-to-treat analyses indicated a significant increase in upper and lower body strength for the RT group compared with controls (20-37% mean increases in the RT group). No significant reduction in A1C levels was observed. The RT group had unchanged high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in comparison to declines in the control group. Significant reductions in fasting insulin, and increases in RT-related self-efficacy and intentions, were also observed in the RT group.
CONCLUSIONS: Supervised home-based RT with high-quality equipment was effective for improving strength, along with other secondary outcomes in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
trening oporowy zmniejszyl pozim insuliny naczczo
Resistance training improves insulin sensitivity in NIDDM subjects without altering maximal oxygen uptake.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of resistance training on insulin sensitivity in nonobese NIDDM patients.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Previously sedentary nonobese NIDDM patients were enrolled in a resistance training group (RT; n = 9) or used as sedentary control subjects (SED; n = 8). SED subjects did not perform exercise training because of orthopedic disorders. The training program consisted of two sets of nine exercises with 10-20 repetitions. Subjects trained five times a week for 4-6 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, as assessed by the hyper-insulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique, HbAJc, and body composition, was measured before and after the training period. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and quadriceps strength were measured in the RT group.
RESULTS: The two groups did not differ significantly on any variables before participation in the program. The glucose disposal rate during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp increased 48% in the RT group (6.85 +/- 1.86 to 10.12 +/- 3.15 mg.kg-1 lean body mass.min-1; P < 0.05), but remained unchanged in the SED group (5.95 +/- 1.63 to 6.36 +/- 1.61 mg.kg-1 lean body mass.min-1). There was no significant change in body composition in either group. In the RT group, a 16% increase in quadriceps strength (191.1 +/- 45.8 to 216.9 +/- 42.8 Nm; P < 0.05) but no significant change (27.6 +/- 5.0 to 28.6 +/- 6.5 ml.kg-1.min-1) in VO2max was observed.
CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-intensity, high-volume resistance training improves insulin sensitivity in nonobese NIDDM without altering VO2max.
trening srednio intensywny - o wysokiej objetosci poprawil wrazliwosc insulinową u osob nieotylych
High-Intensity Resistance Training Improves Glycemic Control in Older Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
OBJECTIVE—To examine the effect of high-intensity progressive resistance training combined with moderate weight loss on glycemic control and body composition in older patients with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Sedentary, overweight men and women with type 2 diabetes, aged 60-80 years (n = 36), were randomized to high-intensity progressive resistance training plus moderate weight loss (RT & WL group) or moderate weight loss plus a control program (WL group). Clinical and laboratory measurements were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months.
RESULTS—HbA1c fell significantly more in RT & WL than WL at 3 months (0.6 ± 0.7 vs. 0.07 ± 0.8%, P < 0.05) and 6 months (1.2 ± 1.0 vs. 0.4 ± 0.8%, P < 0.05). Similar reductions in body weight (RT & WL 2.5 ± 2.9 vs. WL 3.1 ± 2.1 kg) and fat mass (RT & WL 2.4 ± 2.7 vs. WL 2.7 ± 2.5 kg) were observed after 6 months. In contrast, lean body mass (LBM) increased in the RT & WL group (0.5 ± 1.1 kg) and decreased in the WL group (0.4 ± 1.0) after 6 months (P < 0.05). There were no between-group differences for fasting glucose, insulin, serum lipids and lipoproteins, or resting blood pressure.
CONCLUSIONS—High-intensity progressive resistance training, in combination with moderate weight loss, was effective in improving glycemic control in older patients with type 2 diabetes. Additional benefits of improved muscular strength and LBM identify high-intensity resistance training as a feasible and effective component in the management program for older patients with type 2 diabetes.
intensywny trening spowodowal polespzenie tolerancji na glukoze u osob chorych na cukrzyce typu II
Początek zaczerpnięty z opracowania:
'Funkcje aktywności fizycznej w rozwoju wychowanka'
opracowanie: Grzegorz Świerkot
Zmieniony przez - solaros w dniu 2011-02-05 16:33:10