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  • Annaaa26 DT/pods. 4 mies: s.15

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    Ladies SFD

    26.01.2014 DNT To już nawet nie to, że mnie sesja przykuła do fotela i książek. Od nauki też dobrze odpocząć no ale dzisiejszy dzień raczej pod względem kurowania się @@-) Już wczoraj mnie coś brało, ale trening poszedł, dziś niestety gardło boli i dreszcze tak więc do miski wit. C, sok z malin, duużo czosnku i gorącej herbaty... No i odrobina miodu, ale wszystko dla zdrowotności %-) To nie jest dobry czas na chorowanie, oj nie :-) Tak więc niech będzie, lenię się... ;-D ale tylko fizycznie bo mentalnie czacha dymi #-P także pozdrawiam wszystkie Ladies - studentki };-) MICHA /ObrazkiSFD/zdjeciaSFD2/dddda36f36ee45688ff8b1bf7838e3d0.png +warzywa: cebula, ogórek, kapusta kiszona, papryka, czosnek, pomidor, rzodkiewka +płyny: woda dziś niedużo na rzecz hektolitrów herbaty, herbata zwykła i zielona, kawa suplementy: Vitafemin, Castagnus BTW - nie wiem czy ktoś tu wgl czasem zagląda, ale gdyby - zakładając dziennik pisałam o problemach z okresem i co aktualnie z tym robię. Wtedy akurat będąc na wizycie dostałam zalecenia zmniejszenia hormonów do 3 tab. w cyklu (biorę Kontracept) i tak przez kolejne 4 miesiące, po tym czasie przyjść z relacją co i jak. Właśnie gdzieś na dniach, jak skończy mi się @ planuję umówić się na wizytę. Mam jakąś cichą nadzieję, że może gin zasugeruje odstawienie wreszcie tabletek i w zasadzie nie wiem na ile powinnam jej wierzyć, praktycznie cały czas jadę na większych lub mniejszych dawkach hormonów, okres leci jak w zegarku ale czy naturalnie coś by z tego już było, nie wiem. Lekarka tłumaczyła mi tylko, że wywołując okres tabletkami niweluję szkody związane z jego brakiem a tak poza tym to pozostaje czekać... @@-) Wiem, że nie jestem tu sama z takim problemem. Gdyby ktoś czuł się kompetentny doradzić w sprawie np. dodatkowej suplementacji jaką mogę sobie dorzucić czy coś to będę wdzięczna :-) Zmieniony przez - Annaaa26 w dniu 2014-01-26 20:16:19

    Odpowiedzi: 167 Ilość wyświetleń: 13371 Data: 1/26/2014 8:03:01 PM Liczba szacunów: 0
  • ludzie tu sie znaja i odpowiedza no moje pytanie

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    Trening w domu

    Biniu - a czy przypadkiem na diecie keto nie jest latwiej spalic sam tluszcz ? WPIER I TAK (JAK W KADZYM SPOSOBIE ODZYWIANIA, SPALANE SA KALORIE POCHODZACE Z ZEWNETRZYNYCH ZRODEL I JESLI ILOSCI TLUSZCZU WCHODZACEGO BEDZIE WIEKSZA NIZ ZAPOTRZEBOWANIE ENERGETYCZNE TO MIMO TO ZE JESTES W KETOZIE I TAK NIE SPALISZ WLASNEGO TLUSZCZU Zazwyczaj w przypadku diety redukcyjnych nie-keto (dokladnie wysokoww) spadek miesni jest wiekszy w stosunku do spadku na diecie keto. A TO ZALEZY OD ILOSCI KALORII, JESLI ILOSC BEDZIE NIEWIELKA I TAK ZOSTANA MIESNIE ZUZYTE JAKO ZRODLO GLUKOZY Kiedys czytalem o badaniach przeprowadzonych na dosyc sporej grupie osob - na rozych dietach - a tym ze wlasnie na dietach keto oraz niskoww - organizm spalal najwiecej SAMEGO tluszczu. Ilosc spadajacej wagi byla na porownywalnym poziomie. Badanie obejmowalo 4 grupy osob w ktorej wyszczegolniono takze bodazje 4 podgrupy( osoby niecwiczace, cwiczace tylko silowo, cwiczace aerobowo, cwiczace silowo i aerobowo). Przy diecie keto oraz cwiczeniach silowych i aerobowych spadek SAMEGO tluszczu nie byl najwiekszy - ale mial najlepszy stosunek redukcji tluszcz/miesnie (dieta keto - miala 2 miejsce jesli chodzi o spalanie tluszczu). Badanie bylo przeprowadzone przez okolo 4tyg. o ile mnie pamiec nie myli. Ale nie pros o linka bo na pewno go nie znajde. Wiem tylko ze o takim badaniu czytalem. OD LYLE > True, but yet they reduce body fat on most people why try them. In fact, > the study showed that low-carbers lost *twice as much* weight as the > low-fatters. Extra WEIGHT loss is standard on lowcarb diets due to increased water losses. This can be very significant (water losses ranging from 1-15 lbs have been reported in the literature). The question is whether increased amounts of true tissue (fat or muscle) are being lost. See below for more comments on that. > Hey, I'm not saying low-carbing is for you. But it seems like > you are saying that LC eating doesn't work, and the study shows they do in > fact work twice as well as low-fat diets, and the majority of experiences > reported here back up the study. Except that this study runs contrary to just about every other one done on the topic showing little to no true differences in tissue (fat/muscle, NOT water) losses between diets. It *sounds* like they were relying on self-reported caloric intakes and, if so, the study is fundamentally flawed because study after study shows that people don't estimate their true caloric intakes worth a shit. When you consider that controlled calorie studies comparing diets (i.e. folks are given a meticulously measured number of calories of differing macronutrient composition) show basically no difference in true tissue losses, I suspect this is where the problem lays. ................... Let me explain in simpler words since your reading comprehension seems to be limited. In a typical comparison study of a keto vs. non-keto diet (at identical calorie levels), you might see something like Keto: 12 lbs lost Non-keto: 8 lbs lost Both groups will have lost roughly 8 lbs of true tisseu (being some combination of fat and lean body mass). The keto group lost an additional 4 lbs of water. Understand, NOWHERE did I imply that ALL of the weight loss on a keto diet is water, that would be absurd. I said that the EXTRA weight loss on a keto is from water losses. Of course there are true tissue losses (fat and muscle in some proportion depending on a host of variables) but there is an EXTRA weight loss on a keto diet that is due to water. See for examples Golay A et al. Weight-loss with low or high carbohydrate diet? Int J Obes (1996) 20: 1067-1072 ; Alford BB et. al. The effects of variations in carbohydrate, protein and fat content of the diet upon weight loss, blood values, and nutrient intake of adult women. J Am Diet Assoc (1990) 90: 534-540. Both studies compared keto to non-keto diets at identical calorie levels and found no significant difference in true tissue weight. Total true tissue weight loss scaled with caloric intake. ..................... But the fact that people EAT LESS on a keto diet is WHY they lose weight; it's still a calorie issue. That's the whole issue at stake: at an identical calorie level will someone on a keto diet lose more tissue wight (again NOT water weight which makes up a PORTION of the total weight loss and I'm trying to emphasize the key words so yo'ull understand waht I'm saying this time) than someone on a non-keto diet? The majority of the studies say no, this is one of the very very few that say yes (the Young et. al study done in the 80's found similar results but had a huge number of methodological problems). .......................... Basically, to put it simply, there are two issues at stake here and you're confusing them. 1. Does a keto diet have some inherent metabolic advantage: to whit, at an identical calorie level, will a keto diet show greater tissue (fat and muscle NOT water) losses than a non-keto diet. The studies done where calories are strictly controlled do not support this (the early studies confused excess water losses with fat loss)? This study runs contrary to them suggesting nearly twice as much fat lost at an identical calorie level compared to the non-keto. 2. Does a keto diet make it easier for people to reduce calories (or does it cause them to spontaneously reduce calories) so that they eat less and lose weight. The answer to #1 is generally no. The grand majority of studies show no difference (or so small as to be insignificant): given an identical caloric intake, people lose the same amount of true weight (fat/muscle) on a keto vs. non-keto diet. This presumes such things as not taking calories too low and providing sufficient protein. ASSuming those two criteria are met, differences in true tissue loss (again for hte slow, fat and protein) are insignificant. The answer to #2 is yes for many people. The reasons are many. IN the 70's, Yudkin pointed out that, when a given food (carbs) make up ~50% of total food intake, removing it entirely can not help but reduce total food intake. Most studies of ad lib food intake on keto diets show that when people reduce carbs, their protein and fat intakes tend to stay roughly the same; end results is that total caloric intake goes way down (1400-1800 calories is fairly typical). In addition, for hyperinsuleminc folks, removing carbs (or even moderating their intake) tends to control blood glucose, energy levels and appetite which *may* make it easier to reduce total caloric intake. Does this makes sense to you now, we're dealing with two different issues. I'm talking about #1 and you're making points about #2. ....................... Lyle *** Section 4: Water and weight loss Having discussed the topic of nitrogen sparing we can finally examine the effects of ketogenic diets on the other aspects of body composition: water, weight and fat loss. The question then to be answered is whether a ketogenic diet will cause more weight and/or fat loss than a non-ketogenic diet with the same calories. As with the sections on protein sparing, study methodology makes makes it impossible to absolutely answer this question. Prior to discussing the effects of the ketogenic diet on body composition, a few comments about the various studies cited by both the pro- and anti-ketogenic groups are in order. Problems with the studies Most of the early ketogenic diet studies looked at weight loss only, making no distinction between fat, water and muscle loss. As discussed in chapter 8, a dieter’s goal should be maximal fat loss with minimal muscle loss. Since water weight can be gained or lost quickly, it should not be used as the factor to determine whether a ketogenic or balanced diet is the optimal approach. Likewise, many early studies, which are frequently cited by pro-ketogenic authors, confused water loss with fat loss due to methodological problems. These studies should not be considered as evidence either for or against a ketogenic diet. Many early diet studies were extremely short in duration, five to ten days in some cases. This makes drawing valid conclusions about the effectiveness of a given diet approach impossible as results are confounded by the rapid water losses which occurs in the first few days. In very short term studies, a ketogenic diet will almost always show greater weight loss because of fluid losses. However, the amount of fat loss which can occur in this period of time is negligible in almost any diet study. As well, since few dieters pursue fat loss for only 10 days, studies of this duration have limited applicability. The early studies A number of studies done in the 50’s and 60’s showed almost magical results from low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets. The primary result was significantly greater weight loss for low versus high carbohydrate diets in obese subjects (29,30). This led researchers involved to conclude that there was an enhancement of metabolism with the high fat diets, a sentiment echoed by some popular diet book authors. It was suggested that ketogenic diets caused the secretion of a ‘fat mobilizing substance’ which enhanced fat loss (31,32), but this substance was never identified. In these studies, obese subjects lost weight on a 2600 calorie high fat diet but lost no weight when put on a 2000 calorie higher carbohydrate diet (29,30). As these studies attempted to measure changes in lean body mass as well, they concluded that large amounts of fat were being lost on the high fat, but not the high-carbohydrate diets. As would be expected, results of this nature were far too good to be true. The very short term nature of the studies, 9 days or less, as well as the rapid weight loss which occurred in the first few days of the high fat diets, indicate that the supposed fat loss which was occurring was coming primarily from changes in water balance (33,34), which can contribute anywhere from 5 to 15 lbs of weight loss within a few days (see next section). Later studies using the same experimental design, determined that the weight lost and counted as fat was water and that there was no ‘metabolic advantage’ to low carbohydrate diets in terms of weight loss (35,36). Water loss on the ketogenic diet A well established fact is that low-carbohydrate diets tend to cause a rapid loss of water in the first few days. This occurs for several reasons. First and foremost, glycogen is stored along with water in a ratio of three grams of water for every gram of stored carbohydrate (37). As glycogen is depleted, water is lost. For large individuals, this can represent a lot of weight. Additionally, ketones appear to have a diuretic effect themselves causing the excretion of water and electrolytes (38). This includes the excretion of sodium, which itself causes water retention. Electrolyte excretion is discussed in greater detail in the next chapter. Due to confusions about weight loss and fat loss (see chapter 8), many individuals are drawn to low-carbohydrate diets specifically for the rapid initial loss of water weight. During the first few days of a ketogenic diet, water loss has been measured from 4.5 to 15 lbs (17,39-41). Although transient, this rapid initial weight loss can provide psychological incentive for dieters, which may mean greater compliance with the diet. In one study of subjects on a very-low-calorie ketogenic diet adhered to their diet much more than individuals consuming more carbohydrate, and who lost less weight (8). Regardless of possible psychological benefits, it should be understood that the initial weight loss on a ketogenic diet is water. This is especially critical for when individuals come off of a ketogenic diet, either deliberately or because they ‘cheated’. The rapid weight gain which occurs when carbohydrates are reintroduced into the diet, which can range from three to five pounds in one day, can be as psychologically devastating to dieters as the initial weight loss was beneficial. In the same way that fat cannot be lost extremely rapidly, it is physiologically impossible to gain three to five pounds of true bodyfat in one day. This is discussed in more detail in chapter 14 . A final thing to note is that this water loss can be misinterpreted as a loss of protein-containing lean body mass (LBM), depending on the method of measurement. (8). This may be part of the reason that some studies find report a greater loss of LBM for ketogenic versus non-ketogenic diets. Weight loss The fact that the initial weight loss on a ketogenic diet is from a loss of water weight has led to a popular belief that the only weight lost on a ketogenic diet is from water, an attitude that makes little sense. The question then is whether more or less true weight (i.e. non-water) is lost on a ketogenic diet versus a non-ketogenic diet. In most studies, a low-carbohydrate diet will show a greater total weight loss than a high-carbohydrate (8,18,19,25,26,35) but this is not always the case (10,13,15,22) . Once water loss has been taken into account, the rate of weight loss seen, as well as the total weight loss is generally the same for ketogenic versus non-ketogenic diets (35,40). That is, if individuals are put on a 1200 calorie per day diet, they will lose roughly the same amount of ‘true’ weight (not including water) regardless of the composition of the diet. As discussed in chapter 2, a loss of weight is not the sole goal of a diet. Rather the goal is maximization of fat loss with a minimization of muscle loss. Section 5: Fat loss The basic premise of the ketogenic diet is that, by shifting the metabolism towards fat use and away from glucose use, more fat and less protein is lost for a given caloric deficit. Given the same total weight loss, the diet which has the best nitrogen balance will have the greatest fat loss. Unfortunately a lack of well done studies (for reasons discussed previously) make this premise difficult to support. Before discussing the studies on ketogenic diets, a related approach, called the protein sparing modified fast (PSMF) is discussed. Following that, changes in body composition are discussed at three calorie levels: maintenance calories, below 1200 calories per day, and finally between 10% below maintenance and 1200 calories per day. The PSMF The PSMF is a ketogenic regimen designed to maximize fat loss while minimizing protein losses. The sole source of calories are lean proteins which provide 1.5 grams of protein per kilogram of ideal body mass (which is used to estimate lean body mass) or approximately 0.7-0.8 grams of protein per pound. (14,20,42-44). Vitamins and minerals are given to avoid the problems discussed in chapter 7 and no other calories are consumed (42,44). The total caloric intake of the PSMF is extremely low, generally 600-800 calories per day or less. Once the adaptations to ketosis have occurred, the remainder of the day’s caloric requirements are derived from bodyfat. For an average size male, with a basal metabolic rate of 2700 calories per day, this may represent 2500 calories or 280 grams of fat (approximately 0.7 lb of fat) used per day. Fat losses of 0.2 kilograms/day (0.45 lbs) in women and 0.3 kilograms/day (0.66 lbs) in men can be achieved and weight losses of three to five pounds per week are not uncommon (44,45). This can be achieved with only small losses of protein, which occur primarily during the first three weeks while the adaptations to ketosis are occurring. Additionally, appetite tends to be blunted in some individuals, making adherence easier. Finally, there are typically improvements in blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipids while on the PSMF (44). These effects make the PSMF is a very attractive approach for fat loss. However, the PSMF has drawbacks which make it unsuitable for do-it-yourself dieters. First and foremost, the extremely low calorie nature of the PSMF makes medical supervision an absolute requirement as frequent blood tests must be performed to watch for signs of metabolic abnormalities (44). Additionally, the excessively low calories will cause a decrease in metabolic rate making weight regain more likely than if a more moderate approach is used. Typically the PSMF is only used with cases of morbid obesity, when the risks associated with the PSMF are lower than the risks associated with remaining severely obese, and where rapid weight loss is required (44,45). In fact, the PSMF has been shown to be more effective in individuals who are obese versus those who are lean (43,46). The ketogenic diet at maintenance calories A popular belief states that fat can be lost on a ketogenic diet without the creation of a caloric deficit. This implies that there is an inherent ‘calorie deficit’, or some sort of metabolic enhancement from the state of ketosis that causes fat to be lost without restriction of calories. There are several mechanisms that might create such an inherent caloric deficit. The loss of ketones in the urine and breath represents one mechanism by which calories are wasted. However, even maximal excretion of ketones only amounts to 100 calories per day (47). This would amount to slightly less than one pound of extra fat lost per month. Additionally since ketones have fewer calories per gram (4.5 cal/gram) compared to free fatty acids (9 cal/gram), it has been suggested that more fat is used to provide the same energy to the body. To provide 45 calories to the body would require 10 grams of ketones, requiring the breakdown of 10 grams of free fatty acids in the liver, versus only 5 grams of free fatty acids if they are used directly. Therefore an additional 5 grams of FFA would be ‘wasted’ to generate ketones. However, this wastage would only occur during the first few weeks of a ketogenic diet when tissues other than the brain are deriving a large portion of their energy from ketones. After this point, the only tissue which derives a significant amount of energy from ketones is the brain. Since ketones at 4.5 calories/gram are replacing glucose at 4 calories/gram, it is hard to see how this would result in a substantially greater fat loss. Anecdotally, many individuals do report that the greatest fat loss on a ketogenic diet occurs during the first few weeks of the diet, but this pattern is not found in research. Only one study has examined a long term ketogenic diet at maintenance calories (17). Elite cyclists were studied while they maintained their training. Over the span of four weeks there was a small weight loss, approximately 2.5 kilograms (~5lbs) which was quickly gained back when carbohydrates were refed. This loss most likely represented water and glycogen loss, and not true fat loss. Whether this would be different with weight training is unknown. But it does not appear that a ketogenic diet affects metabolism such that fat can be lost without the creation of a caloric deficit. Strangely, some individuals have reported that they can over consume calories on a ketogenic diet without gaining as much fat as would be expected. While this seems to contradict basic thermodynamics, it may be that the excess dietary fat is excreted as excess ketones rather than being stored. Frequently these individuals note that urinary ketone levels as measured by Ketostix (tm) are much deeper when they over consume calories. Obviously at some point a threshold is reached where fat consumption is higher than utilization, and fat will be stored. One study has examined the effect of increasing amounts of dietary fat while on a low-carbohydrate diet and found that up to 600 grams of fat per day could be consumed before weight gain began to occur (48). This effect only occurred in subjects given corn oil, which is high in essential fatty acids, but did not occur in subjects given olive oil, which is not. The corn oil subjects reported a feeling of warmth, suggesting increased caloric expenditure which generated heat. This obviously deserves further research. The ketogenic diet at very low calorie levels (VLCD, below 1200 cal/day) As with the studies on protein sparing, VLCD studies comparing ketogenic to non-ketogenic diets tend to be highly variable in terms of results. Some studies show greater weight/fat and less protein losses (19,24,46,49) while others show the opposite (10,15,21,23,25,26,50). The variability is probably related to factors discussed previously: short study periods, insufficient protein in many studies, and exceedingly low calorie levels. Additionally, few studies incorporate exercise, which has been shown to improve fat loss while sparing muscle loss. Therefore, it is difficult to extrapolate from these studies to the types of ketogenic diets discussed in this book (with a moderate caloric deficit, sufficient protein, and exercise). Ultimately these studies should should not be used as evidence for or against ketogenic diets. The ketogenic diet at low calorie levels (10% below maintenance to 1200 cal/day) In contrast to the results seen with ketogenic VLCDs, there is slightly more evidence that a ketogenic diet will show greater fat loss and less muscle loss than a non-ketogenic diet at higher calorie levels. However, more research is needed at moderate caloric deficits. Since there are few studies done comparing fat loss/muscle loss at this caloric level, they are discussed in more detail. In one of the earliest studies of low-carbohydrate diets, subjects were fed 1800 calories, 115 grams of protein, and varied carbohydrate from 104 grams to 60 grams to 30 grams (18). Fat was varied in proportion to carbohydrate to keep calories constant. The diet was fed for 9 weeks. Total fat loss was directly related to carbohydrate content with the highest fat loss occurring with the lowest carbohydrate content and vice versa. Since there were so few subjects in each group, the data for each subject is presented. The data from this study appears in table 2 on the next page. By examining the data for each subject, some patterns emerge. First and foremost, there is a definite trend for greater fat loss and less LBM loss as carbohydrates are decreased in the diet. However, there is a large degree of variability (note that subject 3 in the medium carbohydrate group lost less muscle than subject 3 in the low carbohydrate group). Before drawing any ultimate conclusions from this study, it should be noted that the protein intake is still below what is recommended in this book, which might change the results in all diet groups. Additionally, the low carbohydrate nature of all three diets, relative to current dietary recommendations, makes it impossible to draw conclusions between a ketogenic diet and a more typical high-carbohydrate diet deriving 55-60% of its total calories from carbohydrate. Table 2: changes in body composition Group Carb Protein Fat Weight Fat LBM (g) (g) (g) loss (kg) loss (kg) loss (kg) High 1 104 115 103 8.5 6.6 1.9 2 13.9 10.2 2.7 Medium 1 60 115 122 13.4 9.9 3.5 2 11.6 9.9 1.7 3 11.8 10.9 0.9 Low 1 30 115 133 Not measured 2 15.3 14.7 0.6 3 16.0 15.0 1.0 Source: Young CM et. al. Effect on body composition and other parameters in young men of carbohydrate reduction in diet. Am J Clin Nutr (1971) 24: 290-296. Two recent studies, both at 1200 calories found no significant difference in the weight or fat loss between groups consuming high- or low-carbohydrate diets (27,28) However, an examination of the data shows a trend towards greater fat loss in the lower carbohydrate groups with less protein loss. The data is summarized below in table 3. Table 3: Changes in body composition for high- and low-carbohydrate diets Study Length Carbs Protein Weight Fat LBM (weeks) (g) (g) loss (kg) loss (kg) loss (kg)* Golay (27) 12 75 86 10.2 8.1 2.1 135 86 8.6 7.1 1.4 Alford (28) 10 75 90 6.4 5.7 0.7 135 60 5.4 4.5 0.9 225 45 4.8 3.7 1.1 *Determined as the difference between total weight loss and fat loss Note: in both studies, the difference in weight, fat and LBM loss was not statistically significant, due to the high degree of variability among subjects. Source: Golay A et al. Weight-loss with low or high carbohydrate diet? Int J Obes (1996) 20: 1067-1072 ; and Alford BB et. al. The effects of variations in carbohydrate, protein and fat content of the diet upon weight loss, blood values, and nutrient intake of adult women. J Am Diet Assoc (1990) 90: 534-540. Why the discrepancy between VLCD research and moderate caloric deficits? The discrepancy between research on diets with extreme caloric deficits versus those with more moderate deficits is perplexing. At first glance it would seem that the greater the caloric deficit, the more fat which should be lost. However in practice, even with sufficient dietary protein, this is rarely the case, especially in the first few weeks of a diet. Although the reasons for this discrepancy are unknown, some speculation is warranted. It appears that there are certain caloric thresholds beyond which the physiological responses to diet and exercise change. As discussed in chapter 22, exercise has its greatest impact in increasing fat loss and decreasing muscle loss with moderate caloric deficits. (51) Once calories are reduced below a certain point, exercise generally stops having a significant effect. It may also be that once calorie levels fall below a certain level, there is increased muscle loss regardless of diet, especially in the first few weeks. That is, for reasons which are not entirely understood, the body appears to be limited in the quantity of fat it can breakdown without some loss of protein (52). This makes it difficult to measure significant differences in bodyfat and protein losses, simply because they are so high in both ketogenic and non-ketogenic VLCDs. This speculation is consistent with studies on metabolic rate showing a much larger decrease in metabolic rate once calories reach a certain low level (53,54). Hence this book’s recommendation to use moderate caloric restriction with exercise. It is interesting that the study done with the highest caloric intake (1800 calories/day) showed the most significant differences in fat and weight loss ; but more research is needed at this calorie level. Along with this is the issue of inadequate protein, discussed previously in this book. The low-calorie nature of the VLCD mandates low protein levels. With only 400 calories per day, the maximum amount of protein which could be consumed would be 100 grams, still lower than the 150 grams required to prevent all nitrogen losses determined in the last chapter. Low protein intake may be one cause of the decrease in metabolic rate with VLCDs (55) and it seems reasonable that this could have an impact on fat loss/LBM loss as well. Summary The effects of the ketogenic diet on weight and water loss are fairly established. In general, due to the diuretic nature of ketones, total weight and water loss will generally be higher for a ketogenic diet compared to a non-ketogenic diet. However, once water losses, which may represent a weight loss of 5 pounds or more, are factored out, the true weight loss from a ketogenic diet is generally the same as for a non-ketogenic diet of the same calorie level. This is especially true at low calorie levels. The research on fat and LBM losses are more contradictory and may be related to calorie level. At maintenance calories, fat loss will not occur. At extremely low calorie levels, below 1200 per day and lower, there are some studies suggesting that a ketogenic diet causes more fat/less LBM loss than a non-ketogenic diet while other studies support the opposite. In all likelihood, the differences are due to variations in study design, protein intake, study length, etc. Because these studies do not mimic the types of ketogenic diets described in this book, with a moderate caloric deficit, adequate protein, and exercise, they should not be used as evidence for or against the ketogenic diet. At more moderate caloric levels, one early study has shown that fat loss increased as carbohydrate intake decreased. Two recent studies showed no statistically significant differences, but there was a trend towards greater fat loss and less muscle loss as carbohydrate quantity came down. An important note is the high degree of variability in subject response to the different diets. None of these studies provided what this author considers to be adequate amounts of protein. Perhaps the proper conclusion to be drawn from these studies is the variety of approaches which can all yield good results. At the very least, a properly designed ketogenic diet with adequate protein appears to give no worse results than a non-ketogenic diet with a similar caloric intake. Some research suggests that it may give better results. Anecdotally many individuals report better maintenance of lean body mass for a SKD/CKD compared to a more traditional diet. This is not universal and others have noted greater LBM losses on a ketogenic diet. The definitive study comparing a ketogenic to a non-ketogenic diet has yet to be performed. It would compare fat loss/muscle loss for a ketogenic diet at 10-20% below maintenance calories, with adequate protein, and weight training to a higher carbohydrate diet with the same calories, protein intake, and exercise. Ultimately, fat loss depends on expending more calories than are consumed. Some individuals have difficulty restricting calories on a high-carbohydrate diet. If lowering carbohydrates and increasing dietary fat increases satiety, and makes it easier to control calories, then that may be the better dietary choice. Other potential pros and cons of the ketogenic diet are discussed in the next chapter. 8. Krietzman S. Factors influencing body composition during very-low-calorie diets. Am J Clin Nutr (1992) 56 (suppl): 217S-223S. 9. Lemon P. Is increased dietary protein necessary or beneficial for individuals with a physically active lifestyle? Nutrition Reviews (1996) 54: S169-S175. 10. Yang MU and Van Itallie TB. Variability in body protein loss during protracted severe caloric restriction: role of triiodothyronine and other possible determinants. Am J Clin Nutr (1984) 40: 611-622. 11. Flatt JP and Blackburn GL. The metabolic fuel regulatory system: implications for protein sparing therapies during caloric deprivation and disease. Am J Clin Nutr (1974) 27: 175-187. 12. Blackburn GL et. al. Protein sparing therapy during periods of starvation with sepsis or trauma. Ann Surg (1973) 177: 588-594. 13. Hendler R and Bonde AA. Very low calorie diets with high and low protein contest: impact on triiodothyronine, energy expenditure and nitrogen balance. Am J Clin Nutr (1988) 48: 1239-1247. 14. Davis PG and Phinney SD. Differential effects of two very low calorie diets on aerobic and anaerobic performance. Int J Obes (1990) 14: 779-787. 15. Vazquez J and Adibi SA. Protein sparing during treatment of obesity: ketogenic versus nonketogenic very low calorie diet. Metabolism (1992) 41: 406-414. 16. Swendseid ME et. al. Plasma amino acid levels in subjects fed isonitrogenous diets containing different proportions of fat and carbohydrate. Am J Clin Nutr (1967) 20: 52-55. 17. Phinney SD et. al. The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: physical and biochemical adaptations. Metabolism (1983) 32: 757-768. 18. Young CM et. al. Effect on body composition and other parameters in young men of carbohydrate reduction in diet. Am J Clin Nutr (1971) 24: 290-296. 19. Bell J. et. al. Ketosis, weight loss, uric acid, and nitrogen balance in obese women fed single nutrients at low caloric levels. Metab Clin Exp (1969) 18:193-208. 20. Bistrian BR et. al. Effect of a protein-sparing diet and brief fast on nitrogen metabolism in mildly obese subjects. J Lab Med (1977) 89:1030-1035 21. Yang MU and VanItallie TB. Composition of weight lost during short-term weight reduction. Metabolic responses of obese subjects to starvation and low-calorie ketogenic and nonketogenic diets. J Clin Invest (1976) 58: 722-730. 22. Hoffer LJ et. al. Metabolic effects of very low calorie weight reduction diets. J Clin Invest (1984) 73: 750-758. 23. Golay A. et. al. Similar weight loss with low- or high-carbohydrate diets. Am J Clin Nutr (1996) 63: 174-178. 24. Morgan WD et. al. Changes in total body nitrogen during weight reduction by very-low-calorie diets. Am J Clin Nutr (1992) 56 (suppl): 26S-264S. 25. DeHaven JR at. al. Nitrogen and sodium balance and sympathetic-nervous-system activity in obese subjects treated with a very low calorie protein or mixed diet. N Engl J Med (1980) 302: 302-477. 26. Dietz WH and Wolfe RR. Interrelationships of glucose and protein metabolism in obese adolescents during short term hypocaloric dietary therapy. Am J Clin Nutr (1985) 42: 380--390. 27. Golay A et al. Weight-loss with low or high carbohydrate diet? Int J Obes (1996) 20: 1067-1072. 28. Alford BB et. al. The effects of variations in carbohydrate, protein and fat content of the diet upon weight loss, blood values, and nutrient intake of adult women. J Am Diet Assoc (1990) 90: 534-540. 29. Kekwick A and Pawan GLS. Metabolic study in human obesity with isocaloric diets high in fat, protein, and carbohydrate. Metabolism (1957) 6: 447-460. 30. Kekwick A and Pawan GLS. Calorie intake relation to bodyweight changes in the obese. Lancet (1956) 155-161. 31. Chalmers TM et. al. On the fat-mobilising activity of human urine Lancet (1958) 866-869. 32. Chalmers TM et. al. Fat-mobilising and ketogenic activity of urine extracts: Relation to corticotrophin and growth hormones. Lancet (1960) 6-9. 33. Grande F Letters to the editor: (Fasting versus a ketogenic diet). Nutr Rev (1967) 25:189-191 34. Grande F. Energy balance and body composition: a critical study of three recent publications. Ann Int Med (1968) 68: 467-480. 35. Werner SC Comparison between weight reduction on a high calorie, high fat diet and on a isocaloric regimen high in carbohydrate. New Engl J Med (1955) 252: 604-612. 36. Oleson ES and Quaade F. Fatty foods and obesity. Lancet (1960) 1:1048-1051 37. “Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations 4th ed.” Ed. Thomas M. Devlin. Wiley-Liss 1997. 38. Sigler MH. The mechanism of the natiuresis of fasting. J Clin Invest (1975) 55: 377-387. 39. Olsson KE and Saltin B. Variations in total body water with muscle glycogen changes in man. Acta Physiol Scand (1970) 80: 11-18. 40. Pilkington TRE et. al. Diet and weight reduction in the obese. Lancet (1960) 1: 856-858. 41. Kreitzman SN et. al. Glycogen storage: illusions of easy weight loss, excessive weight regain, and distortions in estimates of body composition. Am J Clin Nutr (1992) 56: 292S-293S. 42. Bistrian B. Recent developments in the treatment of obesity with particular reference to semistarvation ketogenic regimens. Diabetes Care (1978) 1: 379-384. 43. Palgi A. et. al. Multidisciplinary treatment of obesity with a protein-sparing modified fast: Results in 668 outpatients. Am Journal Pub Health (1985) 75: 1190-1194. 44. Walters JK et. al. The protein-sparing modified fast for obesity-related medical problems. Cleveland Clinical J Med (1997) 64: 242-243. 45. Bistrian BR Clinical use of protein-sparing modified fast. JAMA (1978) 2299-2302. 46. Iselin HU and Burckhardt P. Balanced hypocaloric diet versus protein-sparing modified fast in the treatment of obesity: A comparative study. Int J Obes (1982) 6:175-181. 47. Council on Foods and Nutrition. A critique of low-carbohydrate ketogenic weight reducing regimes. JAMA (1973) 224: 1415-1419. 48. Kasper H. et. al. Response of bodyweight to a low carbohydrate, high fat diet in normal and obese subjects. Am J Clin Nutr (1973) 26: 197-204. 49. Rabast U. et. al. Dietetic treatment of obesity with low and high-carbohydrate diets: comparative studies and clinical results. Int J Obes (1979) 3: 201-211. 50. Hood CE et. al. Observations on obese patients eating isocaloric reducing diets with varying proportions of carbohydrate. Br J Nutr (1970) 24: 39. 51. Saris WHM. The role of exercise in the dietary treatment of obesity. Int J Obes (1993) 17 (suppl 1): S17-S21. 52. Owen OE et. al. Protein, fat and carbohydrate requirements during starvation: anaplerosis and cataplerosis. Am J Clin Nutr (1998) 68: 12-34. 53. Saris WHM. Effects of energy restriction and exercise on the sympathetic nervous system. Int J Obes (1995) 19 (suppl 7): S17-S23. 54. Prentice AM et. al. Physiological responses to slimming. Proc Nutr Soc (1991) 50: 441-458. 55. Whitehead JM et. al. The effect of protein intake on 24-h energy expenditure during energy restriction. Int J Obes (1996) 20: 727-732. ZE STRONY http://www.google.pl/groups?selm=3EA83A1F.950A0DED%40grandecomIMRETARDED.net&oe=UTF-8&output=gplain ............................ differences in *weight* loss are pretty easy: water. A lowered carb diet will result in more water loss so weight loss is almost always higher. In terms of fat loss, in the Alford/Golay studies, I comment that there was a lot of variability among subjects. By averaging the results, you lose that fact. As well, the difference in fat loss was slight, 1 kg over 10 weeks in the Golay study, 1.5 kg over 12 weeks in the Alford study (and the high carb diet was crappy, protein was too low). The best bodyfat measurement methods have a 3-5% error and that could explain a few pounds either way fairly easily. I think I mentioned that the folks I was getting feedback from might have reported a 3 lb difference in fat loss for a keto vs. moderate carb diet over 12 weeks, which is in keeping with these results. Any difference tends to be fairly small overall. Even then, some folks lost more fat on moderate carbs. I imagine that biochemical individuality as well as error in measurement is contributing. But the differences under most conditions are extremely slight. The Young study is a bit tougher to explain. Looking at the study right now, a couple of things stand out. First and foremost, there's the tiny sample sizes: a few subjects in each group. That limits the study's applicability but doesn't explain the trends. Although note the rather large variance. One guy in the highest carb group lost more weight than two of the guys in the moderate carb group. The same guy lost slightly more fat compared to two of the guys in the moderate carb group as well. One thing I note right now is that there was a pretty monstrous range of bodyweights (79-113 kg or 174-248 lbs) and bodyfat percentage (19% to 37%). Unfortunately they didn't indicate the weight/BF% of which subjects lost how much weight/fat which would have been ideal. I'm willing to bet that the biggest/fattest subjects lost the most weight/fat, just as you'd expect. the best I can do is look at the group averages. The lowest carb group was heavier on average by about 7 kg (15 lbs) than the medium carb group and about 4kg (~9 lbs) heavier than the highest carb group. The lowest carb group was also a little bit fatter (31.4% bodyfat) than the medium (30% bodyfat) or highest (28%) carb group. So we have: Highest carb: 98kg/28% BF Moderate carb: 95kg/30%BF Lowest carb: 102kg/31% BF Another issue, something I mistakenly left out of the book. Although they didn't report fat loss for subject 1 in group c, they did report his weight loss: 10.77 kg. Which is less then the other two subjects and less than what the moderate carb group lost. That same person also didn't lose as much bodyfat in terms of mm skinfolds (I didn't put that data in the book). Basically it looks like they put the two heaviest/fattest subjects along with a lighter/leaner guy in the lowest carb group. The lighter guy only lost 10 kg and a lot less bodyfat (he lost 137 total mm of bodyfat compared to 199 and 173 mm for hte other two subjects, folks in the moderate carb group lost 155, 155 and 164 total mm), compared to 15-16kg for the other two. Basically here's the data for groups 2 and 3. Subject Weight loss (kg) Skinfold loss (mm) A1 8.5kg 118 A2 13.88 142 B1 13.38 155 B2 11.56 164 B3 11.8 155 C1 10.77 137 C2 15.25 199 C3 15.99 173 It really does look like they put the two fattest (and presumably heaviest) subjects in the lowest carb group. They lost the most weight/fat, which you'd expect since 1800 calories is a larger deficit for them. The third subject in group C had to have been lighter/leaner since he lost less weight and total fat (by skinfolds). But he kept the average weight/BF% of the group down. But looking at those numbers, the lowest carb group doesn't come out as superior across the board anymore. Subject C1 lost less weight and fat than subject A2 for example. And the entire B group lost more weight/fat than subject C1. And I do really suspect that the variance in weight/fat loss had more to do with starting weight/fat than anything else. It's too bad they didn't list starting weight/BF% for each subject along with individual results, that would have answered it once and for all. Beyond those possibilities: magic. ................. Back in the 70's, they used to lock folks in metabolic wards for weeks on end and really control caloric intake. Now, they usually just give prepared food packets. But such studies have been done, where calories are controlled much more rigorously than 'we told folks to do this and let them report what they think they did, and then we believed them'. Those studies, where caloric intake is actually controlled (usually by giving subjects pre-prepared food packets) show no such discrepancies in weight loss: it all scales with calories regardless of the composition of the diet. High carb, low-carb, whatever you want to pick; everybody loses weight (yes, there is variance for reasons I've mentioned before). but none of these claimed metabolic anomalies, folks who magically failed to lose weight on a low calorie diet has EVER showed up in the HISTORY of diet studies. Yet there seems to be literally dozens or more of them on every diet support group. To which I say this: go to a metabolic ward, have them lock you in a room and control your caloric intake down the joule, you'll lose weight no matter what the diet is composed of. Then please sit the **** down and shut the **** up. Which makes the results of these vaguely controlled studies debatable at best and dismissible at worst. So, to reiterate yet again for the slow readers on asd and asdlc, we have basically two data sets. 1. A data set of controlled calorie studies (at varying calorie levels and varying amcronutrient composition), that is where calories are being controlled (attemps to control activity are generally made) and the subjects are being given fed a set amount. I've already references studies by Golay and Adler on this topic. 2. A data set of studies where subjects are given instructions and then the researchers rely on self-reporting of food intake (said self-reports having been shown to be wildly inaccurate under most conditions). The two studies in contention fall into this category. dAta set 1 shows no such major differences in weight loss (and rarely in tissue loss, that is protein and fat, as long as a few basic requirements, such as adequate protein and not setting too high of a caloric deficit) between groups: it's all about caloric intake. data set 2 shows major differences. Which set to believe? Well, the fat ****s can whine all day long but I'll take controlled studies (i.e. where caloric intake is being rigorously controlled) over non-controlled (i.e. where researchers are relying on subject's notoriously bad reporting) any day. And those controlled studies consistently show the same end result: it's all (ok, 99%, you need adequate protein and extremely low caloric deficits tend to cause more muscle loss than less extreme deficits) about caloric intake. Diet composition basically only matters in terms of adherence (which is an important but tangential issue). Oh yeah, most of these studies are done in the obese so your point about that is sort of moot. It might be that things change a bit (mostly in terms of the composition of what's lost) when folks get very lean but none of the studies in question are testing diets in lean folks (why bother). Incidentally, in one of the few diet studies done in lean athletes (wrestlers all at the sub 10% bodyfat range), even though carbs were nearly 60% of total calories (the study was looking at variations in protein and such), since the diet was hypocaloric, EVERY subject lost fat. Fakty, nie mity - stan wiedzy na rok 2003 'Alternatywna Droga'

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  • gigantmasx-pytania

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    nie zapomnij o witaminie C która pomaga organizmowi przyswajać żelazo.Bez wit C nie zdziałasz nic.Wyciskaj cytryne w szpinak i szamaj go , pomoże.

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  • problem z redukcją - proszę o pomoc / długie /

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    Po 35 roku życia

    darnok35 ; piękne dzięki za konstruktywne spostrzeżenia odpowiadam ; a/chleb robię sam, nad wytworzeniem wędlin które spożywam mam kontrolę- są ponadstandardowej jakości b/jem płatki Nesvita - górskie c/warzyw nie omijam - bład ,że nie napisałem dokładnie d/owoc wieczorem to temat dość sporadyczny , często po aerobach piję własnoręcznie robiony koktajl mleczny opisany w odpowiednim miejscu e/zakrzepica wyleczona - oznacza tylko tyle , ze np jutro znienacka rodzina nie znajdzie mnie zimnego z powodu zatoru płucnego .... ale też oznacza tyle , że jakbym se trochę poskakał / np z radości że oponka się straciła / lub zbyt mocno obciążył dynamicznie nogi to jednak ten gówniany zator może się pojawić w tej minucie . Krótko mówiąc : "dupa" do końca życia. Nogi u mnie muszą mieć dożywotnio lepiej niż jajca .... i kropka. Chyba ,że mnie życie wpieni i wykupię se dobrą polisę ..., to wtedy mogę przegonić się po lesie w cyklu interwałowym ... :-) f/Poszerz myśl z FBB Pozdrawiam , Archibald 68

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  • problem z redukcją - proszę o pomoc / długie /

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    Po 35 roku życia

    archibald 68-jesteś nadal niepoprawnym pedantem... chyba już lecimy siódma strone a ty ciagle robisz to samo...te same błedy... Kompletnie niepotrzebne plany a,b,które sa zakamuflowanymi planami A,B,C,D, albo i wiecej... co cię teraz napadło na 6 powtórzen z dobranym ciężarem?to są treningi w zakresie 85-90 % ciężaru maksymalnego-z twoim zaawansowaniem i chorobą-wg mnie bez sensu... Rozpisałem przykładowy plan obciażen-masz tam max 75%-80 % max obciązenia i to w ostatniej ewentualnie serii. Wykonując 10-12 powtórzen nie dojdziesz do tetna 150ud/min,chyba ,ze bedziesz robił bardzo krotkie przerwy albo masz chore serce. Wybierz 5 podstawowych cwiczen(tylko 5!)zrób je w 5 seriach i bedzie dobrze. Swoja droga-godzinna jazda na rowerze stacjonarnym wg mnie nie bardzo jest odpowiednia dla ciebie-przez siedzenie wystepuje ogranicznie doplywu krwi przez tetnice i zyły ud-od strony wewnetrzej(siodełko)-trzeba by co pare minut wstac z siodelka ....

    Odpowiedzi: 89 Ilość wyświetleń: 6768 Data: 4/6/2012 2:11:24 PM Liczba szacunów: 0
  • Amatorskie Zawody w Sportowych Konkurencjach Siłowych-Czechowice-Dziedzice 11.12.2016

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    Aktualności - Sporty Siłowe

    Proszę bardzo Kolejne Starcie w Strefie Mega Mocy „Amatorskie Zawody w Konkurencjach Siłowych „ o Puchar Burmistrza Miasta Czechowice-Dziedzice 11.12.2016r (niedziela) I. CEL 1. Propagowanie dyscyplin siłowych. 2. Popularyzacja ćwiczeń siłowych wśród społeczeństwa Czechowic-Dziedzic. 3. Wyłonienie najlepszych zawodniczek i zawodników. II. ORGANIZATOR 1. Fitness Park Czechowice-Dziedzice – Elżbieta Zarębska III. TERMIN I MIEJSCE 1. Termin: 11.12..2016r 2. Miejsce: siłownia Fitness Park w Czechowicach-Dziedzicach ul. Legionów 100 3. Rozpoczęcie zawodów: godzina 11:00 4. Ważenie zawodników : 9:30 – 10:30 (w dniu zawodów) 5. Zapisy mailowo info@silownia-czechowice.pl. 6. Wpisowe płatne 20 zł IV. WARUNKI UCZESTNICTWA 1. W zawodach uczestniczyć mogą: • reprezentanci klubów, ognisk i stowarzyszeń kultury fizycznej, osoby niezrzeszone 1. Zawodnicy muszą spełniać następujące warunki: a. ukończony 14 rok życia w dniu zawodów; b. w przypadku osób niepełnoletnich wymagana jest obecność rodzica lub prawnego opiekuna oraz podpisanie oświadczenia zgody na udział dziecka w zawodach siłowych; c. przedstawić ważne zaświadczenie lekarskie z klauzulą „Zdolny do udziału w zawodach siłowych” d. badania lekarskie są ważne 3 miesiące dla uczestników od 14 do 18 roku życia, 6 miesięcy dla uczestników powyżej 18 roku życia; e. uczestników zawodów obowiązuje strój sportowy ( sugerowane koszulki T-shirt i spodenki ) f. każdy uczestnik zawodów(w przypadku osób niepełnoletnich rodzic lub opiekun prawny) zobligowany jest do podpisania oświadczenia o następującej treści „Oświadczam, że biorę udział w zawodach siłowych w dniu 27.06.2015 organizowanych w Czechowicach-Dziedzicach i w razie nieszczęśliwego wypadku, zasłabnięcia itp. nie będę rościł żadnych pretensji w postaci między innymi odszkodowań finansowych do organizatorów zawodów, sędziego głównego zawodów oraz służb medycznych zabezpieczających zawody.”. V. SPOSÓB RYWALIZACJI 1. Zawody zostaną przeprowadzone z podziałem na kategorie: * kobiety open ; * junior open ( do 23 lat) ; * mężczyźni do 80 kg ; * mężczyźni od 80,01kg – 100 kg * mężczyźni powyżej 100 kg 2. Zawody zostaną przeprowadzone w trzech konkurencjach: * wyciskanie sztangi leżąc * martwy ciąg * podciąganie na drążku (wyciskanie i martwy ciąg obowiązkowe dla każdego uczestnika) Uwaga Używanie przez zawodników: rękawiczek, ochraniaczy na kolana i łokcie, pasków do martwego ciągu, pasa itp. zostanie ustalone na odprawie technicznej. VI. NAGRODY - puchary, dyplomy, medale oraz nagrody rzeczowe VII. SPRAWY ORGANIZACYJNE 1. Zgłoszenia uczestników będą przyjmowane do dnia 11.12.2016r a. e-mailem: info@silownia-czechowice.pl. b. przed zawodami osobiście u organizatora na terenie kompleksu sportowo-rekreacyjnego Fitness Park w Czechowicach-Dziedzicach w godzinach od 9.00 do 10:30. c. Informacje o zawodach udziela * Elżbieta Zarębska tel. 604-248-845 * Grzegorz Leski tel. 504-120-722 2. Komisję sędziowską powołuje organizator. VIII. POSTANOWIENIA KOŃCOWE 1. Organizator zastrzega sobie prawo zmian regulaminu. 2. Organizator nie ponosi odpowiedzialności za rzeczy zaginione. 3. Sprawy regulaminowe w tym protesty związane z organizacją zawodów jak i w trakcie ich trwania podejmują sędzia główny zawodów wraz z przedstawicielem organizatora. 4. Punktacja zawodów zostanie ustalona na odprawie technicznej. 5. W przypadku zdobycia tej samej ilości punktów o wyniku decyduje waga zawodników.

    Odpowiedzi: 48 Ilość wyświetleń: 4000 Data: 12/9/2016 11:01:34 AM Liczba szacunów: 0
  • JaBi - jabolcokk - Redukcja na Clenburexin 2 i Lipo(X)PACK Z-

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    Trec

    Odnisę się do dyskusji na temat słodzików: nie ma bezposredniego szlaku metabolicznego, poprzez który słodzik (bezkaloryczny, vide: aspartam, skuraloza), mógł wpłynąc na sekrecje insuliny 9tak jak to czynią np weglowodany), a przynajmniej - ja miejsca dla takowego nie widzę. spotkałem się jednak z opinią iż samo wrażenie, czy też odczucie "słodkiego smaku", może stanowić posredni bodziec dla wyrzutu insuliny, (wspominał o tym dr D.Szukała, na jednym ze swoich wykładów). Osobiscie nie zgadzam się z tą tezą. Dane którymi dysponuję wskazują raczej na to iż nie ma takowej zależnosci u ludzi: Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human hypothalamic responses to sweet taste and calories. Smeets PA, de Graaf C, Stafleu A, van Osch MJ, van der Grond J. Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. paul@isi.uu.nl Abstract BACKGROUND: Evidence exists that beverages do not trigger appropriate anticipatory physiologic responses, such as cephalic phase insulin release. Therefore, it is of interest to elucidate the food properties necessary for triggering adaptive responses. Previously, we found a prolonged dose-dependent decrease in the hypothalamic functional magnetic resonance imaging signal after ingestion of a glucose solution. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to measure the effects of sweet taste and energy content on the hypothalamic response to glucose ingestion and to measure the concomitant changes in blood glucose and insulin concentrations. DESIGN: Five healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized crossover design trial. The subjects were scanned 4 times for 37 min on separate days with functional magnetic resonance imaging. After 7 min, they ingested 1 of the following 4 stimuli (300 mL of each): water (control), a glucose solution, an aspartame (sweet taste) solution, or a maltodextrin (nonsweet carbohydrate) solution. RESULTS: Glucose ingestion resulted in a prolonged and significant signal decrease in the upper hypothalamus (P < 0.05). Water, aspartame, and maltodextrin had no such effect. Glucose and maltodextrin ingestions resulted in similar increases in blood glucose and insulin concentrations. However, only glucose triggered an early rise in insulin concentrations. Aspartame did not trigger any insulin response. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that both sweet taste and energy content are required for a hypothalamic response. The combination of sweet taste and energy content could be crucial in triggering adaptive responses to sweetened beverages. PMID: 16280432 ___________________ Sweet taste: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in men. Teff KL, Devine J, Engelman K. Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Abstract To determine whether sweet-tasting solutions are effective elicitors of cephalic phase insulin release (CPIR) in humans, two studies were conducted using nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners as stimuli. Normal weight men sipped and spit four different solutions: water, aspartame, saccharin, and sucrose. A fifth condition involved a modified sham-feed with apple pie. The five stimuli were administered in counterbalanced order, each on a separate day. In study 1, subjects tasted the stimuli for 1 min (n = 15) and in study 2 (n = 16), they tasted the stimuli for 3 min. Arterialized venous blood was drawn to establish a baseline and then at 1 min poststimulus, followed by every 2 min for 15 min and then every 5 min for 15 min. In both study 1 and study 2, no significant increases in plasma insulin were observed after subjects tasted the sweetened solutions. In contrast, significant increases in plasma insulin occurred after the modified sham-feed with both the 1 min and 3 min exposure. These results suggest that nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners in solution are not adequate stimuli for the elicitation of CPIR. PMID: 7652029 Zmieniony przez - faftaq w dniu 2010-07-21 15:09:03

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  • JaBi - jabolcokk - Redukcja na Clenburexin 2 i Lipo(X)PACK Z-

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    - 4 białka + 2 żółtka - 80-100 g płatków owsianych - 2 średnie banany - 60 g jogurtu naturalnego można kombinować, np. na wierzch posmarować masłem orzechowym, dodawać sezam, orzechy, jeżeli będzie to śniadanie to i morele, a przede wszystkim cynamon - poprawi smak i jest dobrym źródłem cynku polecam też batony: Składniki - Białko - Masło Orzechowe - Woda do michy, mieszasz, formujesz, kładziesz do folii kuchennej i do lodówki oraz przepis na koktajl Evana C.: - 50g proteiny - pół szklanki płatków owsianych - pół szklanki mrożonych owoców leśnych (antyoksydanty) - łyżka oliwy z oliwek albo siema lnianego - łyżka masła orzechowego pozdrawiam

    Odpowiedzi: 1230 Ilość wyświetleń: 20000 Data: 7/23/2010 2:15:53 PM Liczba szacunów: 0
  • JaBi - jabolcokk - Redukcja na Clenburexin 2 i Lipo(X)PACK Z-

    Post
    Trec

    Nie kupuj w Piotrze i Pawle - drogo tam jak c.h...j , ,, jedynie masło orzechowe bez soli i cukru tam warto kupić bo nie mogłem znaleźć nigdzie indziej. A koledzy z SFD poradzili właśnie tam kupić. Co do Dżemu to ST. DALFOUR - Bez Cukru ja mam smak Jagodowy ja mam - Bardzo smaczny Ale nie kupujcie w Piotr i Paweł - Cena 11,99 zł a w Real - 8,99 zł Niestety ja po fakcie zobaczyłem. Zmieniony przez - jabolcokk w dniu 2010-07-26 21:56:21

    Odpowiedzi: 1230 Ilość wyświetleń: 20000 Data: 7/26/2010 9:55:56 PM Liczba szacunów: 0
  • Mightiest self

    Post
    Trening dla początkujących

    na mnie dziala duza dawka witaminy c i na drugi dzien czuje sie jak mlody bog;p

    Odpowiedzi: 1122 Ilość wyświetleń: 20000 Data: 9/3/2013 10:52:20 PM Liczba szacunów: 0
  • Mightiest self

    Post
    Trening dla początkujących

    9.01.2014 – DT 1. Clean and Press 5x5 40 kg->dwie serie na 42,5 kg, reszta pp na 40 kg Po ostatnim treningu DOMS miałem tylko na klacie, a dzisiaj znienacka pojawiła się duża obolałość naramiennych. Na tyle duża, że zabiła mi je sama rozgrzewka (z której mam trochę nagrań do oceny zarzutu). C&P zrobiłem tylko w dwóch tragikomicznie wyglądających seriach. Z jednej miałem film, ale jak go obejrzałem to się przestraszyłem i skasowałem. PP z 40 kg mnie zniszczył (sic!) – żałość nad żałościami, dno, metr mułu itd. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TipRJyByw0w&feature=youtu.be http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PGbPD2P1HQo&feature=youtu.be Myślałem, że choć trochę użyłem czworobocznego, ale jak widać kark ledwo co drgnął. 2. Wiosłowanie ze sztangą 5x10 60 kg->65 kg Pierwsze serie bez skupienia. Byłem załamany wykonaniem ćwiczenia nr 1 i rozważałem zakończenie treningu (/temporary emo mode on), ale wziąłem się w garść (/temporary emo mode off) i resztę wykonałem jak należy. 3. Podciąganie szerokim chwytem 5x5 Robiłem serie (jakieś 6-10 w sumie) po 3-4 ruchy między seriami rozgrzewkowymi do HP. Bardzo ładnie weszło, i to mimo tego, że większość ruchów była niepełna. 4. High pull 5x5 50 kg->55 kg Z początku złapałem za 60 kg, ale wydawało mi się, że skracałem zakres ruchu, więc poszło 5x5 na 55 kg. O dziwo miałem całkiem spory zapas, więc zdecydowałem się jeszcze na dodatkową serię z 60 kg. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=id0pU9Ed4SY&feature=youtu.be 5. Młotki 5x10 11 kg->modlitewnik jednorącz na 13 kg Nie było sztangielki do pary, więc wyjątkowo zmieniłem ćwiczenie. Brzuch Kółko – 13/11/9/6 powtórzeń. Brzuch zniszczony doszczętnie. Jak lepiej ogarnę technikę, to pewnie tych repsów zrobi się sporo mniej. Po treningu 30 minut truchtu (z plecaczkiem, bo nie chciało mi się wracać do akademika). Zrzut: /ObrazkiSFD/zdjeciaSFD2/cec909324ee643439d2d964d42a7230b.png

    Odpowiedzi: 1122 Ilość wyświetleń: 20000 Data: 1/9/2014 11:19:07 PM Liczba szacunów: 0
  • Ziołowe preparaty regeneracyjne

    Post
    Doping

    Nalewki alkoholowe. Oczyszczający &#8211; OSMAVIT Skład: zioła szwedzkie, jemioła, macierzanka, pokrzywa, nagietek, rumianek, skrzyp polny. Zawiera w odpowiednich proporcjach: fenole, terpeny, flawonoidy, garbniki, polisacharydy, witaminy z grupy C i B, betakaroten, związki mineralne, krzemionka, wapń, magnez. Działanie, przeznaczenie: płyn o specjalnie dobranym składzie, oczyszcza organizm z toksyn, złogów przemiany materii, działa antybakteryjnie, antygrzybicznie, oczyszcza krew, poprawia stan włosów, przyspiesza gojenie skóry (np. po wypryskach, etc) Stosowanie: 3x dziennie 10 ml, przed posiłkami, zalecana długość kuracji &#8211; 3-4 tygodnie. Ceny &#8211; 100 ml 9 zł, 200 ml 18 zł, 500 ml 42 zł. + koszty przesyłki. Na stawy &#8211; OSTEOVIT WYŁĄCZNIE DO UŻYTKU ZEWNĘTRZNEGO Skład: korzeń żywokostu, rzepik pospolity, kalanchoe, zioła szwedzkie, skrzyp polny Zawiera w odpowiednich proporcjach: alantoinę, fenole, garbniki, śladowe ilości alkaloidów, związki mineralne. Działanie, przeznaczenie: pobudza regenerację, odnowę i gojenie uszkodzonych i zwyrodniałych tkanek kostnych, chrzęstnych, tkanek łącznych i ścięgien. Działa przeciwzapalnie. Stosowanie: Profilaktycznie 1x dziennie ok. 1 łyżeczkę do herbaty płynu wmasować w narażone na uszkodzenie miejsce. Leczniczo 2x dziennie 1 łyżeczkę do herbaty płynu wmasować w okolice, oraz uszkodzenie miejsce (stawy, ścięgna), w razie cięższych urazów stosować kompresy z gazy &#8211; na około godzinę, po czym wmasować niewielką ilość płynu i pozostawić do wchłonięcia. Skuteczne połączenie ze zwiększonymi dawkami witaminy C (2-3 gr. dziennie), oraz zbilansowaną dietą. Ceny &#8211; 200 ml. 23 zł, 500 ml 55 zł. W opracowaniu preparat ziołowy wspomagający regulację krążenia i ciśnienia krwi (na razie się klaruje, przed sporządzeniem nalewki z wyciągów ziołowych) Jak ktoś chce się pofatygować osobiście i sam zapytać o skład, działanie, etc. zapraszam do: Sklep Zioła-Zdrowa Żywność, Warszawy, ul. Złota 65, tel. (022) 624 37 56

    Odpowiedzi: 45 Ilość wyświetleń: 6627 Data: 4/7/2005 12:57:39 PM Liczba szacunów: 0
  • Trening TS do korekty

    Post
    Aktualności - Sporty Siłowe

    jakbyś dociąganie dał po ciagu sumo w D, wywalił tego do skrzyni to by miało sens. Do tego w A zamiast francuza daj wycisk wąsko 4 serie. łańcuchy w C jak chcesz robić? Możesz dać dynamike 10x3 z łańcuchami wtedy skos w dół zbędny, 2seryjki dipsów możesz zostawić. Po tych modyfikacjach najlepiej A-wolne-B-wolne-C-D-wolne

    Odpowiedzi: 8 Ilość wyświetleń: 2590 Data: 7/21/2010 1:28:48 PM Liczba szacunów: 0
  • Trening TS do korekty

    Post
    Aktualności - Sporty Siłowe

    Dociąganie w zestawie A miało być jako "fundament" treningu gdybym to zmienił plan był by podobny do następnej fazy: Zestaw A 1 Siady (mocno) (sprzęt) 2 siady 1/3 lub stojak 3 Odejścia 4 Przysiady przednie/ hack przysiady (średnio) 5 Ławka (lekko + łańcuchy) 6 Dips 7 Brzuch Zestaw B 1 Ciąg sumo (mocno) (sprzęt) 2 Dociąganie (sprzęt) 3 Wiosło 4 Dzień dobry-> Pull thougs 5 Biceps 6 Brzuch Zestaw C 1 Wyciskanie leząc (mocno) (sprzęt) 2 Docisk(sprzęt) 3 Wyciskanie wąsko 4 Lekkie siady 5 Barki 6 Brzuch Wyciskanie wąsko robilem w poprzedniej metodzie i teraz chciałem dać sobie przerwe. Siady w zestawie D miały być dynamiczne coś ala WSB 10x2 myślałem o łańcuchach ale te co teraz mam są za lekkie ale nad tym pracuje. Wyciskanie w C będzie w formie 8s x 3p z użyciem fali Penduluma

    Odpowiedzi: 8 Ilość wyświetleń: 2590 Data: 7/22/2010 2:07:06 PM Liczba szacunów: 0
  • Trening TS do korekty

    Post
    Aktualności - Sporty Siłowe

    Plany troche się zmieniły teraz pojade tym planem. A po zawodach wezme się za plan z pierwszego postu (już z korektami) Zestaw A 1 Siady (mocno) 2 Stojak 3 Odejścia 4 hack przysiady lub wykroki (średnio) 5 Ławka (lekko + łańcuchy) 6 Dips 7 Brzuch Zestaw B 1 Ciąg sumo (mocno) 2 Dociąganie 3 Wiosło 4 Dzień dobry-> Pull thougs/skłony na ławce rzymskiej 5 Biceps 6 Brzuch Zestaw C 1 Wyciskanie leząc (mocno) 2 Docisk 3 Wyciskanie wąsko 4 Lekkie siady 5 Barki 6 Brzuch Zestaw A 1 Siady według rozpiski 2 Stojak: pierwsza seria + 10kg, druga i trzecia + 20kg (w następnej metodzie siad 1/3 ) 3 Odejścia + 40 w porywach 60 kg więcej niż w siadach 4 tu jeszcze nie wiem co dokladnie (w następnej metodzie napewno siady z przodu) 5 Ławka lekko 8x3 + łańcuchy (fala pendulama) 6 Dips (tu raczej dam większą objętośc) Zestaw B 1 Ciąg według rozpiski 2Dociąganie jeszcze mam dylemat z wysokością i cięzarem (ale dam chyba +20kg i 20cm) 3 Wiosło na początku rozpiski będzie sztangą Yates row a potem hantlą Zestaw C 1 Wyciskanie według rozpiski 2 Docisk do deski 6cm (do rozpiski z wyciskania dodaje 10kg, 2 lub 3 serie) 3 Wąsko z progresją do 4 powtórzeń co tydzień 2,5kg 4 Siady dynamiczne (miały być do skrzyni ale przeanalizowałem trochę ich technike i raczej by mi nie pomogły) Jest jeszcze jeden plus zmiany planu na trzy dniowy... uda mi się wygospodarować dodatkowy tydzień na trening w sprzęcie.

    Odpowiedzi: 8 Ilość wyświetleń: 2590 Data: 7/23/2010 11:39:16 AM Liczba szacunów: 0
  • DROGA DO ARNOLD CLASSIC 2011

    Post
    Trening dla zaawansowanych

    Właśnie jem makaron z wołowiną, do tego ogórek, pomidory, sałata i olej lniany i za godzinę zaczynam trening. Dzisiaj plecy i dwugłowy uda. Na koniec 20 minut aerobów. Z obecnej formy jestem bardzo zadowolony:) Jeżeli wszystko pójdzie zgodnie z planem to forma będzie lepsza niż na ME. Z suplementów również jestem bardzo zadowolony i czuję się świetnie. Używam tylko Hi-Tec. A są to: Ultra Amino 5100 - przed aerobami i przed posiłkami BCAAs TST - przed i po treningu Carbo Pur - po treningu Fenuplast - między posiłkami Glucosamin - przed snem HMB (kaps.) - przed tren i przed aerobami Hyperfusion - po treningu L-Glutamine - przed i po treningu i aerobami, rano i na noc Taurin - rano na czczo Tribulus Terrestris Professional - między posiłkami Vitamin A-Z Antioxidant - do pierwszego posiłku Vasobolan - przed treningiem Whey Fusion - rano i wieczorem ZMA - przed snem Leusteron - przed i po treningu XPump - przed treningiem Vitamin-B - przed treningiem Stosuję jeszcze przed i po treningu 500mg wit.C, 10mg A-Beta Karoten, 400mg wit. E

    Odpowiedzi: 147 Ilość wyświetleń: 20000 Data: 12/8/2010 2:22:58 PM Liczba szacunów: 0
  • Barthez95 - Dziennik Treningowy - Sprinty

    Post
    Inne dyscypliny

    W przed stępie treningowym zrób sobie zawsze 10-20 min lekkiego truchtu, potem porządne rozciąganie, wtedy przechodź do skipów c - jedna noga, druga i oby dwie, tak samo skip a, skip b, jedna noga skip a, druga c i na odwrót, wieloskoki, wyskoki na przemian stronne, podskoki sprinterskie. Z robiąc to przechodź do tego co masz zaplanowane na trening.

    Odpowiedzi: 154 Ilość wyświetleń: 7971 Data: 12/2/2010 4:01:35 PM Liczba szacunów: 0
  • Barthez95 - Dziennik Treningowy - Sprinty

    Post
    Inne dyscypliny

    2 dni nie miałem internetu wiec napiszę co przez nie robiłem Sobota(01.01.2011) Trucht 5 minut Rozciaganie 5 minut 5x50m skipy A,C 8x50m Trucht 5 minut Niedziela(02.01.2011) Siła: przysiady 5x50(8kg) półprzysiady 5x50(8kg) wykroki 5x20(8kg) przeskoki 5x50(8kg) brzuszki 5x50 ćwiczenia z piłką(5kg) Poniedziałek(03.01.2011) Trucht i rozciąganie 15 minut skipy A,C 8x50m pompki 10x10 brzuszki 10x20 przysiady 8x30

    Odpowiedzi: 154 Ilość wyświetleń: 7971 Data: 1/3/2011 6:35:01 PM Liczba szacunów: 0
  • Barthez95 - Dziennik Treningowy - Sprinty

    Post
    Inne dyscypliny

    14.02.2011(Poniedziałek) skipy A,C 5x50m wieloskoki 5x50m 15x100m trucht 5 minut 15.02.2011(Wtorek) skipy A,C 10x50m wieloskoki 10x50m 10x50m(100%) trucht 5 minut

    Odpowiedzi: 154 Ilość wyświetleń: 7971 Data: 2/15/2011 4:19:31 PM Liczba szacunów: 0
  • [BLOG] TomQ & Marian króciaki mogą iść na ryby! Podsumowanie i foty strona 155

    Post
    Junior SFD - pierwsze kroki na siłowni i w sporcie

    http://bundles.sfd.pl/SFD/2017/5/3/aeae37dae9db4f31b2bfb751376c57d6-small.jpg DT 15.05.17 1.RDL 4x8 2.Wypychanie suwnica 5x12 401 3.Wspięcia stojąc 4x max 4a Rozpiętki maszyn 3x12 4b Wiosłowanie sztanga 3x8 4c Wznosy bok barki 3x12 5a Wyciskania hantli leżąc na skosie dodatnim 3x12 5b Ściaganie wyciąg górny 3x12 6. WL wąsko 4x8 7. Uginanie przedramion z hantlami 4x10 8.Allaszki 3x12 komentarz nie dzialaja mi kolory na lampku, wiec mniej czytelnie bedzie:) trening lekki, przyjemny, bez szalenstw, dzisiaj nie ma boli, "zakwasow", wiec dzisiaj nieco przycisne juz mocniej. sprobuje zrobic przysiad, ale musze mocno uwazac na kolano by znowu nie dostao po dupie, wiec tutaj raczej bedzie maks 100kg na sztandze a tempo, ktore zajedzie czworki:) Suple przed treningowow Hero Pump+Amino Complex, w trakcie INTRA WORKOUT po POST WORKOUT+BEEF AMINO inne: omega 3, d3, czosnek, witamina c, b5, b-complex, plasma sabalowa, zma, ashwagandha, enzymy trawienne, chrom, cynk, colon, NAC Dieta /SFD/2017/5/17/632ba09e3bbe4c48ab66806f62af6d24.jpg suple tez juz na stanie, wiec zabezpieczenie na okres redukcji jest /SFD/2017/5/17/b993ab88848b4b41bd5630dbada24147.jpg Zmieniony przez - TomQ-MAG w dniu 2017-05-17 08:53:26

    Odpowiedzi: 1838 Ilość wyświetleń: 20000 Data: 5/17/2017 8:52:30 AM Liczba szacunów: 0