niestety ja nie mam dostepu do fulltextow
ale wnioski oraz opis calkowicie wystarczaja w mojej ocenie :D
Creatine supplementation: a comparison of loading and maintenance protocols on creatine uptake by human skeletal muscle.
Preen D, Dawson B, Goodman C, Beilby J, Ching S.
Department of Human Movement and Exercise Science at The University of Western Australia, Crawley, W.A., Australia, 6009.
The purposes of this investigation were first to determine the impact of 3 different creatine (Cr) loading procedures on skeletal muscle total Cr (TCr) accumulation and, second, to evaluate the effectiveness of 2 maintenance regimes on retaining intramuscular TCr stores, in the 6 weeks following a 5-day Cr loading program (20 g x day(-1). Eighteen physically active male subjects were divided into 3 equal groups and administered either: (a) Cr (4 x 5 g x day(-1) x 5 days), (b) Glucose+Cr (1 g x (-1) of body mass twice per day), or (c) Cr in conjunction with 60 min of daily muscular (repeated-sprint) exercise. Following the 5-day loading period, subjects were reassigned to 3 maintenance groups and ingested either 0 g x day(-1), 2 g. day(-1) or 5 g x day(-1) of Cr for a period of 6 weeks. Muscle biopsy samples (vastus lateralis) were taken pre- and post-loading as well as post-maintenance and analyzed for skeletal muscle ATP, phosphocreatine (PCr), Cr, and TCr concentrations. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected for each of the loading days and last 2 maintenance days, and used to determine whole body Cr retention. Post-loading TCr stores were significantly (p <.05) increased in all treatment conditions. The Glucose+Cr condition produced a greater elevation (p <.05) in TCr concentrations (25%) than the Cr Only (16%) or Exercise+Cr (18%) groups. Following the maintenance period, muscle TCr stores were still similar to post-loading values for both the 2 g x day(-1) and 5 g x day(-1) conditions. Intramuscular TCr values for the 0 g x day(-1) condition were significantly lower than the other conditions after the 6-week period. Although not significantly different from pre-loading concentrations, muscle TCr for the 0 g x day(-1) group had not fully returned to baseline levels at 6 weeks post-loading. The data suggests that Glucose+Cr (but with a much smaller glucose intake than currently accepted) is potentially the most effective means of elevating TCr accumulation in human skeletal muscle. Furthermore, after 5 days of Cr loading, elevated muscle TCr concentrations can be maintained by the ingestion of small daily Cr doses (2-5 g) for a period of 6 weeks and that TCr concentrations may take longer than currently accepted to return to baseline values after such a Cr loading regime.
Effects of repeated creatine supplementation on muscle, plasma, and urine creatine levels.
Rawson ES, Persky AM, Price TB, Clarkson PM.
Department of Exercise Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The purpose of this case study was to examine the effects of repeated creatine administration on muscle phosphocreatine, plasma creatine, and urine creatine. One male subject (age, 32 years; body mass, 78.4 kg; height, 160 cm; resistance training experience, 15 years) ingested creatine (20 g.d(-1) for 5 days) during 2 bouts separated by a 30-day washout period. Muscle phosphocreatine was measured before and after supplementation. On day 1 of supplementation, blood samples were taken immediately before and hourly for 5 hours following ingestion of 5 g of creatine, and a pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma creatine was conducted. Twenty-four-hour urine collections were conducted before and for 5 days during supplementation. Muscle phosphocreatine increased 45% following the first supplementation bout, decreased 22% during the 30-day washout period, and increased 25% following the second bout. There were no meaningful differences in plasma creatine pharmacokinetic parameters between bouts 1 and 2. Total urine creatine losses during supplementation were 63.2 and 63.4 g during bouts 1 and 2, respectively. The major findings were that (a) a 30-day washout period is insufficient time for muscle phosphocreatine to return to baseline following creatine supplementation but is sufficient time for plasma and urine creatine levels to return to presupplementation values; (b) postsupplementation muscle phosphocreatine levels were similar following bouts 1 and 2 despite 23% higher presupplementation muscle phosphocreatine before bout 2; and (c) the increased muscle phosphocreatine that persisted throughout the 30-day washout period corresponded with maintenance of increased body mass (+2.0 kg). Athletes should be aware that the washout period for muscle creatine to return to baseline levels may be longer than 30 days in some individuals, and this may be accompanied by a persistent increase in body mass.
Creatine serum is not as effective as creatine powder for improving cycle sprint performance in competitive male team-sport athletes.
Gill ND, Hall RD, Blazevich AJ.
The Centre for Sport and Exercise Science, Waikato Institute of Technology, Hamilton, New Zealand. email@example.com
This study examined the effects of supplementation with either creatine monohydrate powder in solution (CP) or a widely available creatine serum (CS) on performance in a repeated maximal sprint cycling test (10 x 6 seconds, 24-second passive rest between sprints). Using a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 11 competitive male athletes supplemented with creatine in 2 forms according to the manufacturer's recommendations on 2 separate occasions. The 2 supplementation protocols were (a) 20 g.day(-1) x 6 days of creatine powder in solution plus a placebo serum (CP) or (b) 5 ml.day(-1) x 6 days of creatine serum plus a placebo powder (CS). Subjects completed 2 familiarization trials before the 6-day supplementation period. A repeated maximal sprint cycling test was performed prior to and immediately postsupplementation. A 7-week washout period separated the 2 supplementation protocols. Subjects' total work (9.6%) and peak power (3.4%) in the cycle sprint improved significantly (p < 0.05) after loading with CP, but there was little change after loading with CS. The present data support previous research findings showing an ergogenic effect of CP supplementation but indicate that supplementation with CS does not affect sprint cycling performance. Although the levels of creatine in each formulation were not determined, a substantial conversion of creatine into creatinine has been reported in many formulations and may explain the present findings.