Large muscle groups exercises such as squats, deadlifts, Olympic lifts and jump squats, significantly increase TST concentrations, whereas little or no change has been reported with bench presses and exercises involving smaller musculature. It may be concluded therefore, that within a training session, large muscle group exercises are performed before small muscle group exercises in order to expose the smaller musculature to increased concentrations of TST.
Fahey, TD, Rolph, R, Moungmee, P, Nagel, J and Mortara, S. (1976) Serum testosterone, body composition and strength of young adults. Medicine and Science in Sports 8:31-34
Kraemer, WJ, Fry, AC, Warren, BJ, Stone, MH, Fleck, SJ, Kearney, JT, Conroy, BP, Maresh, CM, Waseman, CM, Triplett, NT, and Gordon, SE. (1992) Acute hormonal response in elite junior weightlifters. International Journal of Sports Medicine 13:103-109
Volek, JS, Kraemer, WJ, Bush, JA, Incledon, T, and Boetes, M. (1997) Testosterone and cortisol in relationship to dietary nutrients and resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 82:49-54
Fleck, SJ, and Kraemer, WJ. (2004)Designing Resistance Training Programs. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics,96-113
Kraemer, WJ, Vingren, JL, and Spiering, B. (2008) Endocrine responses to resistance training. In: Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. Baechle, TR, and Earle, RW, eds. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 41-64, 2008
Kraemer, WJ, and Ratamess, NA. (2000) Physiology of resistance training: Current issues. Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Clinics of North America: Exercise Technologies. 9:4
Kraemer, WJ, and Ratamess, NA. (2005) Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and training. Sport Medicine, 34: 339-361
Hansen, S, Kvorning T, Kjaer, M, M, Sjogaard, G. The effect of short-term strength training on human skeletal muscle: importance of physiologically elevated hormone levels. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 11:347-54
The optimised training strategy for the release of TST has been reported as 3-5 sets of 5-10 repetitions performed close to repetition-maximum loads.
Kraemer, WJ, Marchitelli, L, McCurry, D, Mello, R, Dziados, JE, Harman, E, Frykman, P, Gordon, EE, and Fleck, SJ. (1990) Hormonal and growth factor responses to heavy resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 69:1442-1450
Kraemer, WJ, Gorden, SE, Fleck, SJ, Marchitelli, L, Mello, R, Dziados, JE, Freidl, K, Harman, E, Maresh, C, and Fry, AC. (1991) Endogenous anabolic hormonal and growth factor responses to heavy resistance exercise in males and females. International Journal of Sports Medicine 12: 228-235.
Loebel, CC, and Kraemer, WJ. (1998) A brief review: Testosterone and resistance exercise in men. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 12: 57-63
A moderate to high volume of exercise, achieved with multiple sets, repetitions or exercises may be required as the required as the release of TST may be correlated with lactate accumulation.
Lin, H, Wang, SW, Wang, RY. (2001) Stimulatory effect of exercise on testosterone production by rat Leydig cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 83: 14-154
Linamo V, Pakarinen, A, Komi, PV, Kraemer, WJ, and Hakkinen, K. (2005) Acute hormonal responses to submaximal and maximal heavy resistance and explosive exercises in men and women. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 19:566-571
Lu,SS, Lau, CP, Tung, YF, Huang, SW, Chen, YH, Shih, HC, Tsai, SC, Lu, CC, Wang, SW, Chen, JJ, Chien, EJ, CH, Wang, PS. (1997) Lactate and the effects of exercise on testosterone secretion: evidence for the involvement of a cAMP-mediated mechanism. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 29:1048-1054