W tym temacie zaprezentuje kilka badań mówiących o pozytywnym wplywie omegi3 (epa/dha) na redukcje tkanki tłuszczowej jak i pomoc w budowie tkanki mięśniowej..
Co do 0-3 - jest pelna paleta zalet - wystarczy wygooglowac.
Tutaj przedstawie to co moze byc dla nas najbardziej pozyteczne - dla nas jako uprawiajacych sport jakim jest 'chodzenie na silownie' (zeby nie napisac kulturystykka),osob dbajacych o sylwetke,zmienic kompozycje ciala-pozbyc sie nadmiaru tluszczu i zamienic go w tkanke miesniowej (co jest oczywiscie nierealne).
Ale realne jest spalanie tkanki tluszczowej i zbudowanie tkanki miesniowej.
Niestety ten temat nie bedzie stanowil odpowiedzi na czeste pytanie:
jak zamienic tluszcz w miesnie - ale rzuci pewnien poglad na sprawe jak mozna usprawnic spalanie tkanki tluszczowej,a byc moze zbudowanie 'suchej' tkanki miesniowej.
Liczne badania na zwierzetach udowadnialy ze te karmione omega3 (epa/dha) szybciej tracily tluszcz.
Jesli chodzi o ludzi - to zjawisko nie jest tak proste do wyjasnienia.
Nadal kluczowa role odgrywac bedzie dieta,a jeszcze lepiej dieta wraz z cwiczeniami.
Niestety spozywajac nadal kilka tysiecy kalorii na plusie nic nie uzyskamy dorzucajac nawet duze ilosci nie tylko omegi3,ale wiekszosc nawet najlepszych spalaczy.
Jedno jest pewne - dbajac o diete + dorzucajac jakis wysilek fizyczny 'mozemy' osiagnac lepsze rezultaty jeeli do tego wszytskiego wlączymy suplemenatcje omega 3.
Mechanizm jak to sie dzieje jest nie do konca poznany,nie do konca jednoznaczny - moze tak sie dziac na wiele sposobow.
M.in. poprzez zahamowanie ekspresji genu odpowiedzialego za odkladanie tluszczu,zahamowanie syntezy tluszczu,za nasilenie procesu splania tluszczu,poprzez lepszy matabolzim tluszczu czy poprawiony jego transport,zwiekszenie oksydacji tluszczu w mitochondrium,jak rowniez moze wplywac na poziom tkanki tluszczowej poprzez nasilenie termogenezy , poprzez zmnijeszenie poziomu kortyzolu - im wiekszy kortzyol tym wiecej fatu (czy innych czynnikow ktorych nie jestem w stanie przetlumaczyc a nie chce walnac jakiegos lapsusa).
Badania na zwierzetach:
Dietary fatty acid composition influences energy accretion in rats.
To study the influence of dietary fatty acid composition on energy metabolism, forty male rats were fed elemental diets containing 42% of energy as fish oil, safflower oil, olive oil or beef tallow for 12 wk. Food intakes and body weights were measured daily. Energy expenditure and body composition were determined using doubly labeled water on the final 2 d. Pooled fecal energy losses differed in response to dietary manipulation, with losses greatest in rats fed beef tallow and least in those fed olive oil. Higher lean body mass gains and lower fat mass gains were observed in rats fed diets containing fish oil, compared with rats fed olive oil or beef tallow.
4 grupy szczurow - 42% energi pochodzilo z:
-oleju rybiego (0-3)
najwieksza beztluszczowa mase ciala jak i najnziszy poziom tkanki tluszczowej po 12 tygodniach uzyskala grupa karmiona olejem rybim
Omega-3 PUFA of marine origin limit diet-induced obesity in mice by reducing cellularity of adipose tissue.
Omega-3 PUFA of marine origin reduce adiposity in animals fed a high-fat diet. Our aim was to learn whether EPA and DHA could limit development of obesity and reduce cellularity of adipose tissue and whether other dietary FA could influence the effect of EPA/DHA. Weight gain induced by composite high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice was limited when the content of EPA/DHA was increased from 1 to 12% (wt/wt) of dietary lipids. Accumulation of adipose tissue was reduced, especially of the epididymal fat. Low ratio of EPA to DHA promoted the effect. A higher dose of EPA/DHA was required to reduce adiposity when admixed to diets that did not promote obesity, the semisynthetic high-fat diets rich in EFA, either alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3, the precursor of EPA and DHA) or linoleic (18:2 n-6) acid. Quantification of adipose tissue DNA revealed that except for the diet rich in ALA the reduction of epididymal fat was associated with 34-50% depression of tissue cellularity, similar to the 30% caloric restriction in the case of the high-fat composite diet. Changes in plasma markers and adipose gene expression indicated improvement of lipid and glucose metabolism due to EPA/DHA even in the context of the diet rich in ALA. Our results document augmentation of the antiadipogenic effect of EPA/DHA during development of obesity and suggest that EPA/DHA could reduce accumulation of body fat by limiting both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of fat cells. Increased dietary intake of EPA/DHA may be beneficial regardless of the ALA intake.
badano wplyw diety bogatej w tluszcze wraz ze spozyciem duzej ilosci 0-3
gdy zwiekszono spozycie 0-3 z 1% do 12% zwoloniono dalsze przybieranie na wadze
na diecie ktora nie prowadzi do szybkiego przybierania na wadze - zwiekszone dawki epa/dha prowadzily do redukcji otylosci
spozywanie epa/dha ogranicza rozrost czy hipertrofie komorek tluszczowych
1-wsze badanie na ludziach
Effect of dietary fish oil on body fat mass and basal fat oxidation in healthy adults
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the substitution of fish oil for visible fats in a control diet (52% carbohydrates, 16% protein, 32% fat; P:S 0.2) influences body fat mass and substrate oxidation in healthy adults. DESIGN: Six volunteers (5 men; 23±2 y; BMI: 21.9±1.6) were fed a control diet (C) ad libitum during a period of three weeks and, 10-12 weeks later, the same diet where 6 g/d of visible fat were replaced by 6 g/d of fish oil (FO) for another three weeks. RESULTS: Energy intakes (IKA-calorimeter) were unchanged. Body fat mass (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) decreased with FO (-0.88±0.16 vs-0.3±0.34 kg; FO vs C; P<0.05). When adjusted for lean body mass (Ancova), resting metabolic rate (indirect calorimetry) was unchanged. Basal respiratory quotient decreased with FO (0.815±0.02 vs 0.834±0.02; P<0.05) and basal lipid oxidation increased with FO (1.06±0.17 vs 0.87±0.13 mg kg-1 min-1; P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Dietary FO reduces body fat mass and stimulates lipid oxidation in healthy adults
6 mezczyzn przez 3 tygodnie spozywalo normalna diete (52%ww,16%b,32%t)
po 12tygodniach przerwy 6g tluszczu zastapiono 6g oleju rybiego i spozywali taka diete przez kolejne 3 tygodnie
wyniki (placebo/olej rybi):
-spadek tluszczowej masy ciala -0.30/-0.88
-Oksydacja lipidów 0.87/1.06
Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of including seafood and fish oils, as part of an energy-restricted diet, on weight loss in young overweight adults.
DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content was followed for 8 weeks. Subjects were randomized to one of four groups: (1) control (sunflower oil capsules, no seafood); (2) lean fish (3 x 150 g portions of cod/week); (3) fatty fish (3 x 150 g portions of salmon/week); (4) fish oil (DHA/EPA capsules, no seafood). The macronutrient composition of the diets was similar between the groups and the capsule groups, were single-blinded.
SUBJECTS: A total of 324 men and women aged 20-40 years, BMI 27.5-32.5 kg/m(2) from Iceland, Spain and Ireland.
MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometric data were collected at baseline, midpoint and endpoint. Confounding factors were accounted for, with linear models, for repeated measures with two-way interactions. The most important interactions for weight loss were (diet x energy intake), (gender x diet) and (gender x initial-weight).
RESULTS: An average man in the study (95 kg at baseline receiving 1600 kcal/day) was estimated to lose 3.55 kg (95% CI, 3.14-3.97) (1); 4.35 kg (95% CI, 3.94-4.75) (2); 4.50 kg (95% CI, 4.13-4.87) (3) and 4.96 kg (95% CI, 4.53-5.40) on diet (4) in 4 weeks, from baseline to midpoint. The weight-loss from midpoint to endpoint was 0.45 (0.41-0.49) times the observed weight loss from baseline to midpoint. The diets did not differ in their effect on weight loss in women. Changes in measures of body composition were in line with changes in body weight.
CONCLUSION: In young, overweight men, the inclusion of either lean or fatty fish, or fish oil as part of an energy-restricted diet resulted in approximately 1 kg more weight loss after 4 weeks, than did a similar diet without seafood or supplement of marine origin. The addition of seafood to a nutritionally balanced energy-restricted diet may boost weight loss.
przez 4 tygodnie badano wplyw pozywienia na spadek tk.tluszczcowej u 324 mezczyzn i kobiet
4 grupy spozywajace:
-olej slonecznikowy (1)
-malo tlusta rybe 3x150g dorsza/tydzien (2)
-tlusta rybe 3x150g łososia/tydzien (3)
-olej rybii (4)
kaloryczniosc diet byla podobna (1600kcal)
-utrata tkanki tluszczowej
1-3.55 kg (3.14-3.97)
2-4.35 kg (3.94-4.75)
3-4.50 kg (4.13-4.87)
4-4.96 kg (4.53-5.40)
co dziwne - rodzaj przyjmowanej diety nie roznil sie wynikami u kobiet (?)
Additive benefits of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and weight-loss in the management of cardiovascular disease risk in overweight hyperinsulinaemic women.
BACKGROUND: Obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are inter-related. Both weight-loss and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) are independently known to reduce metabolic risk, but the combined effects are unclear.
OBJECTIVE: This study examines whether addition of LC n-3 PUFA to a low fat/high carbohydrate weight-loss programme results in greater improvements in inflammation, insulin sensitivity and CVD risk, than weight-loss alone.
DESIGN: One hundred and sixteen overweight insulin-resistant women entered a 24-week randomised intervention study. Thirty-nine women were randomised to a weight-loss programme, with LC n-3 PUFA (WLFO), 38 to a weight-loss programme with placebo oil (WLPO), and 39 to receive placebo oil, with no weight-loss programme (control).
RESULTS: Ninety-three women completed the study (35 WLFO, 32 WLPO and 26 control), with significant weight-loss in WLFO (10.8+/-1.0%) and WLPO (12.4+/-1.0%) compared to the control group (P<0.0001). The WLFO, but not WLPO or control group, showed significant increases in adipose tissue LC n-3 PUFA (0.34+/-0.20 vs 0.17+/-0.10 and 0.16+/-0.10 %DHA, P<0.0001). Weight-loss showed significant improvements in insulin sensitivity (P<0.001), lipid profile (triglycerides P<0.05) and inflammation (sialic acid P<0.05). Time*group effects showed significant decreases in triglycerides (P<0.05) and increases in adiponectin (P<0.01) with LC n-3 PUFA, in the WLFO vs WLPO groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Weight-loss improved risk factors associated with CVD, with some additional benefits of LC n-3 PUFA on triglycerides and adiponectin. Given the current low dietary intake of LC n-3 PUFA, greater attention should be given to increase these fatty acids in the treatment of obesity.
4 grupy otylych,insulinoopornych kobiet:
-program nastawiony na utrate tluszczu + suplementacja 0-3 (1)
-program nastawiony na utrate tluszczu (2)
utrata masy ciala 10.8% (1)i 12.4 (2) w porownaniu do grupy placebo
zmniejszenie poziomu trojlicerydow i adiponektyny u grupy 1 w porownaniu do pozostalych grup
Exercise plus n-3 fatty acids: additive effect on postprandial lipemia.
The purpose of this study was to examine changes in postprandial lipemia (PPL) in recreationally active males following aerobic exercise, omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) supplementation, and the combination of the two. PPL following a high-fat meal was measured in 10 recreationally active males (25 +/-1.5 years) under each of the following conditions: no exercise and no n-3 FA supplementation (control); exercise and no n-3FA supplementation (exercise); n-3FA supplementation and no exercise (n-3FA); and exercise and n-3 FA supplementation (combined). Blood was collected before the high-fat meal and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after the meal to assess the PPL response. Supplementation consisted of 4.0 g of n-3FA per day for 5 weeks. Triglyceride (TG) peak response, the total area under the TG curve (TG-AUCT), and the incremental area under the TG curve (TG-AUCI) were used to define the PPL response. TG peak response was significantly reduced 38% by n-3FA supplementation and 50% by the combination of exercise and n-3FA supplementation. N-3FAs significantly reduced the TG-AUCT by 27% and by 42% when combined with exercise. When compared with the exercise trial, the TG-AUCT during the combined trial was significantly lower. Exercise, n-3FAs, and the combination significantly reduced the TG-AUCI by 40%, 42%, and 58%, respectively. These results suggest that the combination of exercise and n-3FA supplementation reduce PPL to a greater degree in recreationally active males when compared with the individual treatments.
badano wplyw 0-3 w polaczeniu z treningiem
3 grupy mezczyzn:
-nie przyjmujacy 0-3,nie cwiczacy (1)
-przyjmujacy 0-3,nie cwiczacy (2)
-nie przyjmujacy 0-3,cwiczacy (3)
-przyjmujacy 0-3,cwiczacy (4)
grupy przyjmujace 0-3 spozywaly go w ilosci 4g/dzien
po okresie 5 tygodni wyniki wygladaly nastepujaco:
-poziom szczytowy trojglicerydow (TG) po posilku byl obnizony w grupie 2 o 38% i w grupie 4 o 50% w porownaniu do pozostalych grup
-poziom TG (pole pow. pod kreska) podobnie u grupy 2 mniejszy o 27% i u grypu 4 mniejszy o 42%
to swiadczy o tym ze polaczenie 0-3 z treningiem jeszcze bardziej wplywa na nizszy poziom trojglicerydow
Interaction of exercise training and n-3 fatty acid supplementation on postprandial lipemia.
The effect of combining omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplementation and exercise training treatment on postprandial lipemia (PPL) has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of n-3 FA and exercise training in attenuating PPL after a high-fat meal. Previously sedentary, overweight, subjects (n=22; 12 women, 10 men, BMI 26.6+/-0.7 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: n-3 FA supplementation alone (FO, n=10) or n-3 FA supplementation plus exercise training (FO+ExTr, n=12). Both groups consumed 4 g/d n-3 FA, and one group also exercise trained for 45 min/d, 5d/week of brisk walking and (or) jogging at 60% VO2 max. Before and after 4 weeks of treatment, subjects performed a baseline PPL and a PPL following a single session of exercise (ExPPL). PPL was assessed by triglyceride (TG) area under the curve (AUC) and peak TG response (TGpeak). A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to compare results from treatments for baseline and exercise trials. FO alone reduced PPL and Ex PPL, and FO+ExTr attenuated the ExPPL response measured as total AUC and TGpeak. There was no significant main effect for group or group by time interaction for baseline PPL or ExPPL. Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C (i.e., subfraction 2) concentrations were significantly increased in the FO+ExTr group after the treatments. These results suggest that n-3 FA supplementation reduced PPL in sedentary subjects. Exercise training has no interference or additive effects with n-3 FA supplementation in attenuating PPL, but combined treatments may be additive in raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
podobne badanie jak wyzej
tym razem badano poziom HDL - ktory byl najwayzszy u grupy spozywajacej 0-3(4g/dzien) w polaczeniu z treningiem
Combining fish-oil supplements with regular aerobic exercise improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors
Background: Regular exercise and consuming long-chain n-3 fatty acids (FAs) from fish or fish oil can independently improve cardiovascular and metabolic health, but combining these lifestyle modifications may be more effective than either treatment alone.
Objective: We examined the individual and combined effects of n-3 FA supplements and regular exercise on body composition and cardiovascular health.
Design: Overweight volunteers [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): >25] with high blood pressure, cholesterol, or triacylglycerols were randomly assigned to one of the following interventions: fish oil (FO), FO and exercise (FOX), sunflower oil (SO; control), or SO and exercise (SOX). Subjects consumed 6 g tuna FO/d (≈1.9 g n-3 FA) or 6 g SO/d. The exercise groups walked 3 d/wk for 45 min at 75% age-predicted maximal heart rate. Plasma lipids, blood pressure, and arterial function were assessed at 0, 6, and 12 wk. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 0 and 12 wk only.
Results: FO supplementation lowered triacylglycerols, increased HDL cholesterol, and improved endothelium-dependent arterial vasodilation (P < 0.05). Exercise improved arterial compliance (P < 0.05). Both fish oil and exercise independently reduced body fat (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: FO supplements and regular exercise both reduce body fat and improve cardiovascular and metabolic health. Increasing intake of n-3 FAs could be a useful adjunct to exercise programs aimed at improving body composition and decreasing cardiovascular disease risk.
badano wplyw 0-3 na otyle osoby,z nadcisnieniem,z wysoekiem poziomem trojglicerydow,z wysokim poziomem cholesterolu prze okres 12tygodni
4 grupy osob
-placebo,nie cwiczace (SO)
-przyjmujace 0-3,nie cwiczace (~2g epa/dha) (FO)
-przyjmujace 0-3,cwiczace (~2g epa/dha) (FOX)
-najwiecej tkanki tluszczowej zgubila grupa (FOX) przyjmujaca 0-3 + cwiczaca
-najwiecej 'suchej' masy miesniowej uzyskala grupa (FOX)
Treatment for 2 mo with n 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces adiposity and some atherogenic factors but does not improve insulin sensitivity in women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled study.
Background: Information is lacking on the potential effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes.
Objective: We evaluated whether n-3 PUFAs have additional effects on adiposity, insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue function (production of adipokines and inflammatory and atherogenic factors), and gene expression in type 2 diabetes.
Design: Twenty-seven women with type 2 diabetes without hypertriglyceridemia were randomly allocated in a double-blind parallel design to 2 mo of 3 g/d of either fish oil (1.8 g n-3 PUFAs) or placebo (paraffin oil).
Results: Although body weight and energy intake measured by use of a food diary were unchanged, total fat mass (P < 0.019) and subcutaneous adipocyte diameter (P < 0.0018) were lower in the fish oil group than in the placebo group. Insulin sensitivity was not significantly different between the 2 groups (measured by homeostasis model assessment in all patients and by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp in a subgroup of 5 patients per group). By contrast, atherogenic risk factors, including plasma triacylglycerol (P < 0.03), the ratio of triacylglycerol to HDL cholesterol (atherogenic index, P < 0.03), and plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (P < 0.01), were lower in the fish oil group than in the placebo group. In addition, a subset of inflammation-related genes was reduced in subcutaneous adipose tissue after the fish oil, but not the placebo, treatment.
27 kobiet (cukrzyki typ II) podzielono na 2 grupy:
-przyjmowaly przez okres 2 miesiecy 1,8g epa/dha
waga ciala (placebo/0-3):
srednica komorki tluszczowej:
1.05/1.16 (+0,11 mmol/L)
1.20/1.05 (-0,15 mmol/L)
Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults
To determine the effects of supplemental fish oil (FO) on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults.
A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD) participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO); or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson's r.
Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03), a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04), and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08). No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg), RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal) or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05). There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11). There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02) and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001).
6 wk of supplementation with FO significantly increased lean mass and decreased fat mass. These changes were significantly correlated with a reduction in salivary cortisol following FO treatment.
badano wplyw 0-3/placebo na 44osoby przez okres 6tygodni
-grupa przyjmujaca 0-3 w ilosci 2,4g epa/dha (2)
beztluszczowa masa ciala:
tkanka tluszczowa :
poziom tkanki tluszczowej:
dla ciekawosci podam ze poziom kortzyolu rowniez ulegl zmianie:
-placebo (przed/po/zmiana):0.305/0.321/+0.016 (μg/dL)
POlecam inne badania dot.0-3:
Zmieniony przez - solaros w dniu 2011-03-05 04:28:42